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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors among participants.

From: An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

Characteristic Cases
(N = 1109)
Controls
(N = 1177)
 
  N % N % p-value1
Age      
   <45 121 10.9 68 5.8  
   45-54 354 31.9 440 37.4  
   55-64 394 35.5 526 44.7  
   ≥65 240 21.6 140 11.9  
   Not reported 0 0.0 3 0.3 <0.012
   Mean (SD) 56.1 (9.1)   55.7 (7.0)   0.22 3
Education      
   Primary 418 37.7 464 39.4  
   Secondary 412 37.2 435 37.0  
   Tertiary 131 11.8 147 12.5  
   University 135 12.2 122 10.4  
   Not reported 13 1.2 9 0.8 0.51
Marital status      
   Married 921 83.1 1015 86.2  
   Widowed/Divorced 130 11.7 117 9.9  
   Single 57 5.1 42 3.6  
   Not reported 1 0.1 3 0.3 0.09
BMI      
   <18.5 13 1.2 11 0.9  
   18.5-24.5 314 28.3 322 27.4  
   25-29.5 368 33.2 463 39.3  
   ≥30 337 30.4 269 22.9  
   Not reported 77 6.9 112 9.5 <0.001
Family history of breast cancer      
   No 953 85.9 1068 90.7  
   Yes 156 14.1 107 9.1  
   Not reported 0 0.0 2 0.2 <0.001
Age at menarche      
   ≤11 years 157 14.2 134 11.4  
   12-14 years 798 72.0 838 71.2  
   ≥15 years 154 13.9 205 17.4 0.02
Pregnancy4      
   Yes 1021 92.1 1110 94.3  
   No 88 7.9 67 5.7 0.03
Number of children4      
   None 103 9.3 88 7.5  
   One 90 8.1 82 7.0  
   Two 480 43.3 492 41.8  
   Three or more 436 39.3 515 43.8 0.10
Age at 1st pregnancy5      
   <30 851 83.4 971 87.5  
   ≥30 140 13.7 116 10.5  
   Not reported 30 2.9 23 2.1 0.03
Breastfeeding5      
   Never 305 29.9 279 25.1  
   ≤6 months 329 32.2 385 34.7  
   7-12 months 166 16.3 181 16.3  
   More than 1 year 221 21.7 265 23.9 0.09
Oral contraceptive use      
   No 823 74.2 879 74.7  
   Yes 280 25.3 294 25.0  
   Not reported 6 0.5 4 0.3 0.76
HRT use      
   Never 937 84.5 838 71.2  
   <6 months 41 3.7 64 5.4  
   6-60 months 86 7.8 182 15.5  
   ≥60 months 45 4.1 92 7.8  
   Not reported 0 0.0 1 0.1 <0.001
Smoking      
   Never 869 78.4 955 81.1  
   Past 130 11.7 76 6.5  
   Current 108 9.7 143 12.2  
   Not reported 2 0.2 3 0.3 <0.001
Exercise6      
   Yes 544 49.1 635 54.0  
   No 563 50.8 539 45.8  
   Not reported 2 0.2 3 0.3 0.06
  1. Notes: 1P-value of χ2 test for independence. 2Differences in the age distribution among cases and controls are mainly driven by the under-representation of controls in the younger and older age-groups. After restricting to ages 45-65, p-value becomes 0.46. 3P-value of t-test for difference in mean age between cases and controls. 4The difference in number of women reporting not having had a pregnancy (N = 155) and not having had a child (N = 191) is due to the fact that 15 and 21 women in cases and controls respectively have reported been pregnant not resulting in birth. 5Restricted to those women who have had a pregnancy. 6Only information on current exercise status was available.