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Table 2 Effectiveness of physical exercise on physical activity assessed with wearable systems

From: Physical activity interventions to improve daily walking activity in cancer survivors

Author [Ref] Design and sample Inclusion criteria Type of intervention Type of walking activity monitoring system Change in steps per day Statistical significances
Irwin [24] RCT of PE (n = 37) or UC (n = 38). Breast cancer survivors completed adjuvant treatment at least 6 months for enrolment in study, between 40 and 75 years, stage I-IIIA, less than 90 min./wk. moderate or vigorous activity levels, not exercising in weight-loss intervention, non- smoking, non-diabetic or non-history of invasive cancer. Combined supervised training intervention, 3x/wk, 60-80% at supervised health-club, with 2-5 participants and individual exercise at home. (2x/wk, 30 min). Steps/day assessed with a 7-day pedometer log.
Patients wore the pedometer from awakening in the morning until they went to bed in the evening.
PE group increased pedometer steps by 1621/day, compared to a decrease of 60 steps/day for the UC group. p < 0.01/d = 0.38.
Rogers [25] RCT of 12 week behavioral change activity group (n = 21) and UC group (n = 20) with measurements at baseline and post-intervention. English speaking breast cancer survivors, stage I-IIIA, taking aromatase inhibitors or hormonal therapy for the duration of the study. Patients after surgery were delayed for 8 weeks before entering the study. 12-wk behavior change intervention contained discussion group sessions, supervised PE, home-based PE and update face-to-face counseling. The UC group contained written materials from the ACS. Steps/day assessed with Actigraph accelerometer Type GT1 M for 7 consecutive days. 4 valid days were used for analyses. Both the PE and UC group improved for total activity step counts. However, there was no statistical difference between both groups. p < 0.81/d = 1.02.
Vallence [26] RCT of SR (n = 96), PM (n = 94), PED (n = 94), COM (n = 93). Breast cancer survivors after adjuvant chemotherapy, stage I-IIIA, not chronic medical and orthopaedic conditions, sufficient ability to read English, absence of breast cancer, not exercising in other programs. All groups received SR, via telephone (total 5x/wk, 30 min). PM received a copy an exercise guide for breast cancer survivors, PED received pedometer and COM received both the pedometer and the copy of 'Exercise for health' by post after randomization. Steps/day assessed with Digi-walker SW-200.
Survivors in the COM and PED group (those who wore a step meter, n = 187) recorded the steps on 83.% (70 of 84 study days).
No differences between any of the groups for steps/day. SR vs COM
p = 0.710/d = 0.08.
SR vs PED
p = 0.885/d = 0.09.
SR vs PM
p = 0.727/d = 0.02.
PED vs COM
p = 0.848/d = 0.185.
PM vs COM
p = 0.982/d = 0.10.
Matthews 2006 [27] RCT of PE (n = 23) and waiting list controls (n = 13) with assessments at 6 and 12 weeks. Breast cancer survivors after adjuvant chemotherapy, stage I-IIIA, non-cardiovascular and orthopaedic conditions, non-exercising already more than 5 days/wk. PE group 12 wk. walking program, UC received pedometer and counselling by telephone 30 min at start + 5 short telephone calls in wk. 1, 2, 4, 7 and 10 (10-15 min.) discussing safety, adherence, goal achievement, reinforcement and encouragement. Steps/day assessed with Actigraph during 7 consecutive days. Steps/day increased with 1153 steps in the PE group, but decreased in the control group with 559 steps. p < 0.04/d = 0.82.
Knols RH, de Bruin ED, Uebelhart D, Aufdemkampe G, Schanz U, Stenner-Liewen F, Hitz F, Taverna C, Aaronson NK. Effects of an outpatient physical exercise program in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients: a randomized clinical trial, unpublished. RCT of a 12 week supervised physical exercise program (n = 64) compared to UC (n = 67). Adult patients with HSCT, GVHD except for grade I not requiring treatment, instable osteolyses, chronic pain, lesions of the central or peripheral nervous system, uncontrolled coronary pulmonary or diabetic disease. PE group: 12- week supervised outpatient strength and endurance program, 2x/wk, 60-90 min. up to 75% of V02 max UC: usual care. Steps/day assessed with SAM3 accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. No differences for walking activity between the PE and the UC group. p = 0.530/d = -0.04.
  1. PE; Physical exercisers, UC; Usual care control group, ACS; American Cancer Society, SR; standard public-health recommendation, PM; Physical activity print materials, PED; step pedometer, COM; combination of PM and PED, HSCT; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, GVHD; Graft versus host disease, p; significance, d; effect-size.