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Table 1 Biomarkers associated with the progression of Barrett's oesophagus to oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

From: Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC) study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

Biomarker Direction Putative mechanism of promoting oesophageal adenocarcinoma
Gastro-oesophageal reflux frequency and severity Increased Chronic inflammation and damage to oesophageal epithelium
Central obesity Increased Systemic metabolic dysfunction
Increased reflux of gastric acid into the lower oesophagus via increased intra-abdominal pressure and/or hiatus hernia
Leptin Increased Mitogenic
Angiogenic
Anti-apoptotic
Adiponectin Decreased Increased insulin resistance
Pro-inflammatory
Anti-apoptotic
Inflammatory mediators: Increased Mitogenic
Angiogenic
   C-reactive protein   Increased differentiation
   Tumour necrosis factor-α   Anti-apoptotic
   Interleukin-6   Decreased DNA repair
Insulin Increased Mitogenic
Anti-apoptotic
Increased leptin
Increased tumour necrosis factor-α
Decreased adiponectin