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Table 2 Meta analysis on the ethyl carbamate occurrence in Brazilian spirits

From: Cancer risk assessment of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Brazil with special consideration to the spirits cachaça and tiquira

    Ethyl carbamate [mg/l]
Type of beverage Data sources N Mean Median 90th percentile 95th percentile 99th percentile
Pot still cachaça [17, 18, 42, 45, 46, 48], this study 275 0.38 0.21 0.96 1.32 2.21
Column still cachaça [18, 42, 45, 48], this study 101 0.49 0.32 1.01 1.68 2.30
All types cachaça (without weighting for distillation type) [17, 18, 4143, 4548], this study 536 0.38 0.19 0.91 1.34 2.22
All types cachaça (with weighting according to production amount: 38% pot and 62% column still) [17, 18, 45, 46, 48], this study 376 0.45 0.28 0.99 1.54 2.26
Regulated cachaça (hypothetical distribution after full implementation of 0.15 mg/l limit)a All types cachaça, see above 536 0.11 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Tiquira [19, 41, 47, 50] 95 2.34 1.72 5.44 6.10 10.20
  1. a To derive this hypothetical distribution, all samples with concentrations above the limit were set to 0.15 mg/l