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Table 1 Literature data on ethyl carbamate in recorded and unrecorded alcoholic beverages from the market and from experimental studies

From: Cancer risk assessment of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Brazil with special consideration to the spirits cachaça and tiquira

     Ethyl carbamate [mg/l]
Beverage group/Study Sample/Sampling characterization Production origin N Mean Median 90th percentile 95th percentile 99th percentile Maximum Percentage above 0.15
1. Cachaça
Farah Nagato et al. [41] Recorded, column/pot still, Brazilian market São Paulo State, Brazil 13 0.33 0.24 0.68 0.95 1.14 1.20 69%
Boscolo [49] Recorded, Brazilian market Different states, Brazil 84 0.90 -a - - - 5.5 87%
Andrade-Sobrinho et al. [19] Recorded, column/pot still, Brazilian market Different states, Brazil 126 0.77 (pot still: 0.63; column still: 0.93) 0.479 - - - 5.70 79%
Lelis [42] Recorded, un-recorded column/
Pot still, Brazilian market.
Different states, Brazil 75 0.38 (pot still: 0.40; column still: 0.29) 0.36 0.63 0.83 0.91 0.95 87%
Baffa Júnior et al. [43] Recorded, Brazilian market Minas Gerais State, Brazil 22 1.20 0.60 1.67 1.96 10.19 12.38 77%
EFSA 2007 [4] Recorded, European market No data 19 0.229 0.11 - 0.478 - 0.73 -
Barcelos et al. [44] Pot still, experimental Minas Gerais State, Brazil 52 0.243 - - - - 0.643 -
Bruno et al. [45] Recorded, column/
pot still, experimental,
Brazilian market
Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil 34 0.17 (pot still: 0.11; column still: 0.31) 0.10 0.42 0.60 0.68 0.71 44%
Labanca et al. [46] Recorded, pot still Brazilian market, Minas Gerais State, Brazil 69 0.89 0.79 1.78 2.10 2.42 2.61 93%
Andrade Sobrinho et al. [47] Recorded, Sampling 2002 Sao Paulo State, Brazil 108 0.14 0.07 0.29 0.55 1.23 1.39 27%
Andrade Sobrinho et al. [47] Recorded, sampling 2004 Different
States, Brazil
36 - 0.108 - - - 0.46 33%
Andrade Sobrinho et al. [47] Recorded, Brazilian market, sampling 2005 Brazil 41 - 0.163 - - - 1.16 58%
Andrade Sobrinho et al. [47] Recorded, sampling 2006 Different
States, Brazil
34 - 0.085 - - - 0.646 24%
Andrade Sobrinho et al. [47] Recorded, Brazilian market,
sampling 2006
Brazil 35 - 0.138 - - - 1.67 49%
Nóbrega et al. [17] Recorded, pot still Brazilian market Paraíba
State, Brazil
25 0.22 0.20 0.40 0.42 0.63 0.70 68%
Lachenmeier et al. [18] Recorded, un-recorded, column/
pot still, European/Brazilian markets
Different States, Brazil 42 0.27 (pot still: 0.15; column still: 0.37) 0.18 0.55 0.68 1.27 1.54 56%
Reche and Franco [48]b Pot still, experimental Brazil 73 0.11 0.05 0.24 0.29 0.83 1.29 15%
Reche and Franco [48]b Column still, experimental Brazil 42 0.42 0.41 1.79 2.10 2.93 3.37 83%
This study Recorded, column/
pot still Brazilian market
Pernambuco
State, Brazil
33 0.18 (pot still: 0.06; column still: 0.30) 0.19 0.33 0.39 0.49 0.53 55%
2. Tiquira
Boscolo et al. [50] No data Maranhão State, Brazil 12 3.51 3.26 6.01 7.95 9.75 10.2 100%
Farah Nagato et al. [41] No data Maranhão State, Brazil 1 0.80 - - - - - -
Andrade-Sobrinho et al. [19] No data Maranhão State, Brazil 37 2.35 1.80 5.36 6.10 8.60 10.00 100%
Andrade Sobrinho et al. [47] No data Maranhão State, Brazil 45 2.06 1.51 4.67 6.01 8.41 10.2 98%
3. Other Beverages
Farah Nagato et al. [41] Whisky/Fruit spirit,
Brazilian market
Scotland/
Brazil.
2 0.7 (Scotch), 1.41 (Fruit spirit) - - - - - -
Andrade-Sobrinho et al. [19] Grappa, Italian/
Brazilian markets.
Italy and Brazil 6 0.02 0.01 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.07  
Andrade-Sobrinho et al. [19] Whisky, Brazilian market USA and Scotland 19 0.14 0.10 0.22 0.35 0.39 0.40 26%
Francisquetti et al. [51] Wines including sparkling wines, Brazilian market R. Grande do Sul St, Brazil 124 0.004 to 0.019 - - - - 0.07 0%
Ferreira et al. [52] Orange press liquor spirit, experimental, not commercially available Brazil 10 n.d.c - - - - - 0%
  1. a Values marked as (-) not calculable because raw data is not available
  2. b Values were reported in g/hl of pure alcohol. Own recalculation to mg/l assuming an average alcoholic strength of 40% vol.
  3. c not detectable