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Table 3 Associations between intake of fat-soluble antioxidants and survival following glioma diagnosis, stratified by histology group

From: Daily intake of antioxidants in relation to survival among adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma

Nutrient (unit) Tertiles All or self-report (SR) only Grade II Grade III Grade IV
      (143 cases, 72 deaths) (130 cases, 103 deaths) (475 cases, 473 deaths)
  Lower limit   Upper limit   HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Vitamin E (mg)
T1: 0.8 to 6.4 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 6.5 to 9.4   1.00 (0.44-2.27) 1.02 (0.60-1.74) 1.15 (0.89-1.50)
T3: 9.5 to 42.1   1.05 (0.33-3.33) 0.37* (0.17-0.81) 0.81 (0.58-1.12)
T1: 0.8 to 6.4 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 6.5 to 9.4   0.87 (0.38-2.01) 1.75 (0.83-3.69) 1.06 (0.74-1.53)
T3: 9.5 to 42.1   0.82 (0.23-2.95) 1.06 (0.38-2.98) 0.97 (0.62-1.51)
Alpha-carotene (mcg)        
T1: 7.4 to 427.1 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 428.6 to 916.1   0.64 (0.29-1.40) 1.44 (0.81-2.56) 0.99 (0.76-1.28)
T3: 917.8 to 17008.2   1.10 (0.55-2.22) 0.91 (0.48-1.72) 1.06 (0.80-1.40)
T1: 7.4 to 427.1 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 428.6 to 916.1   0.65 (0.28-1.53) .12* (1.08-4.18) 0.88 (0.60-1.27)
T3: 917.8 to 17008.2   1.20 (0.57-2.53) 1.18 (0.57-2.45) 1.18 (0.81-1.72)
Beta-carotene (mcg)        
T1: 257.7 to 2070.1 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 2070.2 to 3754.1   0.86 (0.43-1.74) 0.95 (0.54-1.68) 1.08 (0.84-1.39)
T3: 3757.6 to 39807.1   0.92 (0.45-1.90) 0.76 (0.37-1.54) 1.11 (0.85-1.46)
T1: 257.7 to 2070.1 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 2070.2 to 3754.1   0.79 (0.36-1.71) 1.36 (0.64-2.90) 1.06 (0.74-1.53)
T3: 3757.6 to 39807.1   1.08 (0.53-2.21) 1.45 (0.61-3.48) 0.97 (0.66-1.41)
Carotenoids (mcg)        
T1: 303.0 to 2501.5 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 2503.5 to 4658.0   0.89 (0.43-1.84) 1.05 (0.60-1.82) 1.11 (0.87-1.43)
T3: 4662.2 to 51458.1   0.91 (0.46-1.82) 0.68 (0.33-1.41) 1.18 (0.89-1.55)
T1: 303.0 to 2501.5 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 2503.5 to 4658.0   0.74 (0.34-1.64) 1.70 (0.84-3.46) 1.13 (0.78-1.63)
T3: 4662.2 to 51458.1   1.02 (0.50-2.06) 1.21 (0.50-2.90) 1.02 (0.69-1.50)
Lutein (mcg)        
T1: 31.3 to 1285.5 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 1288.6 to 2687.6   0.69 (0.36-1.35) 0.60 (0.35-1.02) 0.96 (0.74-1.23)
T3: 2694.2 to 51290.4   0.56 (0.26-1.18) 1.03 (0.53-2.01) 1.19 (0.92-1.53)
T1: 31.3 to 1285.5 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 1288.6 to 2687.6   0.70 (0.35-1.43) 1.11 (0.55-2.26) 1.06 (0.73-1.53)
T3: 2694.2 to 51290.4   0.65 (0.30-1.41) 1.86 (0.72-4.78) 1.07 (0.74-1.53)
Lycopene (mcg)        
T1: 0.0 to 914.8 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 915.8 to 2118.3   1.78 (0.92-3.46) 1.33 (0.77-2.31) 1.27 (0.99-1.62)
T3: 2121.5 to 26788.8   0.81 (0.37-1.80) 0.70 (0.36-1.36) 1.10 (0.85-1.44)
T1: 0.0 to 914.8 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 915.8 to 2118.3   2.31* (1.12-4.75) 2.17* (1.02-4.62) 1.10 (0.77-1.57)
T3: 2121.5 to 26788.8   1.00 (0.41-2.44) 2.31 (0.98-5.43) 1.00 (0.69-1.44)
Cryptoxanthin (mcg)        
T1: 0.0 to 79.8 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 80.2 to 180.3   1.52 (0.70-3.29) 0.66 (0.37-1.18) 1.34* (1.04-1.73)
T3: 180.4 to 1437.2   0.92 (0.39-2.17) 1.24 (0.66-2.33) 1.57* (1.20-2.06)
T1: 0.0 to 79.8 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 80.2 to 180.3   1.83 (0.86-3.92) 1.04 (0.51-2.14) 1.19 (0.82-1.72)
T3: 180.4 to 1437.2   0.85 (0.35-2.08) 1.14 (0.52-2.51) 1.32 (0.90-1.93)
Coumestrol (mcg)        
T1: 3.0 to 83.4 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 84.1 to 145.3   0.99 (0.51-1.90) 0.70 (0.38-1.30) 1.13 (0.88-1.45)
T3: 145.5 to 1315.3   0.77 (0.33-1.75) 1.06 (0.60-1.87) 1.16 (0.88-1.54)
T1: 3.0 to 83.4 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 84.1 to 145.3   1.11 (0.56-2.21) 1.41 (0.67-2.96) 0.98 (0.68-1.40)
T3: 145.5 to 1315.3   0.73 (0.29-1.82) 0.96 (0.45-2.05) 1.06 (0.72-1.57)
Matairesinol (mcg)        
T1: 0.1 to 17.6 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 17.7 to 34.5   1.17 (0.55-2.49) 0.88 (0.51-1.52) 1.38* (1.08-1.77)
T3: 34.6 to 218.6   0.78 (0.36-1.69) 0.86 (0.48-1.54) 1.20 (0.92-1.57)
T1: 0.1 to 17.6 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 17.7 to 34.5   1.14 (0.52-2.50) 1.27 (0.59-2.73) 1.34 (0.95-1.89)
T3: 34.6 to 218.6   0.88 (0.38-2.04) 1.00 (0.48-2.09) 1.07 (0.74-1.55)
Secoisolariciresinol (mcg)        
T1: 6.3 to 87.3 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 87.4 to 146.0   1.25 (0.60-2.61) 0.54* (0.31-0.93) 1.04 (0.81-1.33)
T3: 146.1 to 698.4   1.95 (0.93-4.10) 0.48* (0.25-0.92) 1.32* (1.02-1.72)
T1: 6.3 to 87.3 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 87.4 to 146.0   1.19 (0.52-2.73) 0.75 (0.38-1.49) 0.83 (0.58-1.21)
T3: 146.1 to 698.4   1.41 (0.63-3.15) 0.51 (0.22-1.19) 0.95 (0.66-1.36)
Linoleic acid (g)        
T1: 1.6 to 8.9 ALL 1   1   1  
T2: 9.0 to 14.6   1.21 (0.57-2.58) 1.15 (0.66-2.02) 1.03 (0.80-1.32)
T3: 14.7 to 57.7   0.95 (0.35-2.60) 0.50 (0.25-1.01) 0.87 (0.63-1.19)
T1: 1.6 to 8.9 SR 1   1   1  
T2: 9.0 to 14.6   1.14 (0.51-2.53) 0.88 (0.41-1.89) 0.85 (0.60-1.21)
T3: 14.7 to 57.7   1.17 (0.41-3.35) 0.59 (0.23-1.52) 0.96 (0.60-1.54)
  1. adjusted for reporting status (all cases vs self reported cases only), age at diagnosis (<48,48-65,>65), treatment (radiation, chemo, surgery - yes/no), education (<12, 12, >12), marital status (yes/no), total calories (continuous), pack years (median = 18.5), and age at first alcoholic drink (<18,18-20,>20).
  2. * p < 0.05