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  1. Content type: Research article

    Primary chemotherapy (PC) is used for down-staging locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). CA 15-3 measures the protein product of the MUC1 gene and is the most widely used serum marker in breast cancer.

    Authors: Dhafir Al-azawi, Gabrielle Kelly, Eddie Myers, Enda W McDermott, Arnold DK Hill, Michael J Duffy and Niall O Higgins

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:220

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  2. Content type: Research article

    There is a large body of evidence which suggests that bile acids increase the risk of colon cancer and act as tumor promoters, however, the mechanism(s) of bile acids mediated tumorigenesis is not clear. Previ...

    Authors: Ashley A Powell, Sandeep Akare, Wenqing Qi, Pascal Herzer, Samira Jean-Louis, Rebecca A Feldman and Jesse D Martinez

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:219

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  3. Content type: Research article

    High risk HPVs are causative agents of anogenital cancers. Viral E6 and E7 genes are continuously expressed and are largely responsible for the oncogenic activity of these viruses. Transcription of the E6 and ...

    Authors: Rita Villanueva, Néstor Morales-Peza, Irma Castelán-Sánchez, Enrique García-Villa, Rocio Tapia, Ángel Cid-Arregui, Alejandro García-Carrancá, Esther López-Bayghen and Patricio Gariglio

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:218

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  4. Content type: Research article

    One of the most thoroughly studied systems in relation to its prognostic relevance in patients with breast cancer, is the plasminogen activation system that comprises of, among others, the urokinase Plasminoge...

    Authors: Philippe Leissner, Thibault Verjat, Thomas Bachelot, Malick Paye, Alexander Krause, Alain Puisieux and Bruno Mougin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:216

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  5. Content type: Study protocol

    Self-tests are those where an individual can obtain a result without recourse to a health professional, by getting a result immediately or by sending a sample to a laboratory that returns the result directly. ...

    Authors: Sue Wilson, Sheila Greenfield, Helen M Pattison, Angela Ryan, Richard J McManus, David Fitzmaurice, John Marriott, Cyril Chapman and Sue Clifford

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:215

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the second most common solid childhood tumour, an aggressive disease for which new therapeutic strategies are strongly needed. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TR...

    Authors: Annick Mühlethaler-Mottet, Marjorie Flahaut, Katia Balmas Bourloud, Katya Auderset, Roland Meier, Jean-Marc Joseph and Nicole Gross

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:214

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are anti-apoptotic paralogues that inhibit apoptosis elicited by a wide variety of stimuli, and play critical roles in cancer development and resistance to treatment. Many clinical studies hav...

    Authors: Aline A Fiebig, Weijia Zhu, Catherine Hollerbach, Brian Leber and David W Andrews

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:213

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Epigenetic gene silencing is one of the major causes of carcinogenesis. Its widespread occurrence in cancer genome could inactivate many cellular pathways including DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, c...

    Authors: Hui-Juan Yang, Vincent WS Liu, Yue Wang, Percy CK Tsang and Hextan YS Ngan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:212

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) are involved in colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. There is still debate whether t...

    Authors: Tae-Dong Kim, Kyoung-Sub Song, Ge Li, Hoon Choi, Hae-Duck Park, Kyu Lim, Byung-Doo Hwang and Wan-Hee Yoon

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:211

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Breast cancer (BC) detection in women with a genetic susceptibility or strong family history is considered mandatory compared with BC screening in the general population. However, screening modalities depend o...

    Authors: Laura Cortesi, Daniela Turchetti, Isabella Marchi, Antonella Fracca, Barbara Canossi, Rachele Battista, Silvia Ruscelli, Anna Rita Pecchi, Pietro Torricelli and Massimo Federico

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:210

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Individuals heterozygous for germline ATM mutations have been reported to have an increased risk for breast cancer but the role for ATM genetic variants for breast cancer risk has remained unclear. Recently, a co...

    Authors: Johanna Tommiska, Laila Jansen, Outi Kilpivaara, Hege Edvardsen, Vessela Kristensen, Anitta Tamminen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale and Heli Nevanlinna

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:209

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases develop through the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. If an increase in DNA repair expression is detected in both early adenomas and carcinomas it may indicate that low r...

    Authors: Mona Sæbø, Camilla Furu Skjelbred, Bjørn Andersen Nexø, Håkan Wallin, Inger-Lise Hansteen, Ulla Vogel and Elin H Kure

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:208

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma surrogate marker of tumor hypoxia and as an indicator of the presence of pleural mesothelioma in asbestos-exposed individuals. The c...

    Authors: Dirk Vordermark, Harun M Said, Astrid Katzer, Thomas Kuhnt, Gabriele Hänsgen, Jürgen Dunst, Michael Flentje and Matthias Bache

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:207

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The mechanism for maintaining telomere integrity is controlled by telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that specifically restores telomere sequences, lost during replication by means of an intrinsic RNA comp...

    Authors: Blanca Murillo-Ortiz, Horacio Astudillo-De la Vega, Sebastian Castillo-Medina, JM Malacara and Luis Benitez-Bribiesca

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:206

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  15. Content type: Technical advance

    Fragile sites are regions of the genome sensitive to replication stress and to exposure to environmental carcinogens. The two most commonly expressed fragile sites FRA3B and FRA16D host the histidine triad (FHIT)...

    Authors: Pascale Willem, Jacqueline Brown and Jan Schouten

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:205

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The amide class compound, 3, 4-dichloropropionanilide (DCPA) is known to affect multiple signaling pathways in lymphocyte and macrophage including the inhibition of NF-κB ability. However, little is known abou...

    Authors: Bing-Hua Jiang, Ling-Zhi Liu, Rosana Schafer, Daniel C Flynn and John B Barnett

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:204

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Uncontrolled proliferation and increased motility are hallmarks of neoplastic cells, therefore markers of proliferation and motility may be valuable in assessing tumor progression and prognosis. MCM2 is a memb...

    Authors: Jun Yang, Nithya Ramnath, Kirsten B Moysich, Harold L Asch, Helen Swede, Sadir J Alrawi, Joel Huberman, Joseph Geradts, John SJ Brooks and Dongfeng Tan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:203

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The MITO-2 (Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer) study is a randomized phase III trial comparing carboplatin plus paclitaxel to carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in first-line chemother...

    Authors: Sandro Pignata, Giovanni Scambia, Antonella Savarese, Enrico Breda, Paolo Scollo, Rocco De Vivo, Emanuela Rossi, Vittorio Gebbia, Donato Natale, Filomena Del Gaizo, Emanuele Naglieri, Antonella Ferro, Pietro Musso, Alfonso Maria D'Arco, Roberto Sorio, Carmela Pisano…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:202

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation in ovar...

    Authors: Jozien Helleman, Iris L van Staveren, Winand NM Dinjens, Patricia F van Kuijk, Kirsten Ritstier, Patricia C Ewing, Maria EL van der Burg, Gerrit Stoter and Els MJJ Berns

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:201

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  20. Content type: Research article

    In real-time RT quantitative PCR (qPCR) the accuracy of normalized data is highly dependent on the reliability of the reference genes (RGs). Failure to use an appropriate control gene for normalization of qPCR...

    Authors: Silvia Saviozzi, Francesca Cordero, Marco Lo Iacono, Silvia Novello, Scagliotti V Giorgio and Raffaele A Calogero

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:200

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is a metalloprotein enzyme that belongs to the acid phosphatases and is known to be expressed by osteoclasts. It has already been investigated as a marker of bone met...

    Authors: A Honig, L Rieger, M Kapp, M Krockenberger, M Eck, J Dietl and U Kämmerer

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:199

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  22. Content type: Research article

    There is still much debate about the best adjuvant therapy after surgery for endometrial cancer (EC) and there are no current guidelines. Radiotherapy (RT) alone does not seem to improve overall survival. We i...

    Authors: Giorgia Mangili, Patrizia De Marzi, Saverio Beatrice, Emanuela Rabaiotti, Riccardo Viganò, Luigi Frigerio, Cinzia Gentile and Ferruccio Fazio

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:198

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Prostate cancer cells communicate reciprocally with the stromal cells surrounding them, inside the prostate, and after metastasis, within the bone. Each tissue secretes factors for interpretation by the other....

    Authors: Amanda Tate, Shuji Isotani, Michael J Bradley, Robert A Sikes, Rodney Davis, Leland WK Chung and Magnus Edlund

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:197

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Large randomised clinical trials and systematic reviews substantiate that tamoxifen is ineffective in improving survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, a recent report suggested that...

    Authors: Ciro Gallo, Ermelinda De Maio, Massimo Di Maio, Giuseppe Signoriello, Bruno Daniele, Sandro Pignata, Annalisa Annunziata and Francesco Perrone

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:196

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Young age remains a controversial issue as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Debate includes patients from different parts of the world. Almost 50% of patients with breast cancer seen at the American Unive...

    Authors: Nagi S El Saghir, Muhieddine Seoud, Mazen K Khalil, Maya Charafeddine, Ziad K Salem, Fady B Geara and Ali I Shamseddine

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:194

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  26. Content type: Case report

    Distant spread from breast cancer is commonly found in bones, lungs, liver and central nervous system. Metastatic involvement of peritoneum and retroperitoneum is unusual and unexpected.

    Authors: G Franceschini, A Manno, A Mulè, A Verbo, G Rizzo, D Sermoneta, L Petito, P D'alba, C Maggiore, D Terribile, R Masetti and C Coco

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:193

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The homeobox gene HEX is expressed in several cell types during different phases of animal development. It encodes for a protein localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. During early mouse development,...

    Authors: Cinzia Puppin, Fabio Puglisi, Lucia Pellizzari, Guidalberto Manfioletti, Marta Pestrin, Maura Pandolfi, Andrea Piga, Carla Di Loreto and Giuseppe Damante

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:192

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenic differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and ornithine ...

    Authors: Michele Linsalata, Romina Giannini, Maria Notarnicola and Aldo Cavallini

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:191

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  29. Content type: Case report

    Extensive disease of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) determines the overall outcome and limits curative resection. Despite chemotherapy, which has been introduced to improve the outcome of biliary tract malignancies, ...

    Authors: Martin F Sprinzl, Carl C Schimanski, Markus Moehler, Simin Schadmand-Fischer, Peter R Galle and Stephan Kanzler

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:190

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with ovarian cancer and may impact the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Our aims were to examine the extent of disease at the time of the diagnosis of ovarian cancer and ...

    Authors: Mette S Tetsche, Mette Nørgaard, Lars Pedersen, Timothy L Lash and Henrik T Sørensen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:189

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Interleukins and cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of many solid cancers. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in cytokine genes are thought to influence the expression ...

    Authors: SP Balasubramanian, IAF Azmy, SE Higham, AG Wilson, SS Cross, A Cox, NJ Brown and MW Reed

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:188

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Recent experimental studies have shown that Bcl-2, which has been established as a key player in the control of apoptosis, plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and proliferation. The aim of this study was...

    Authors: Shinichi Tsutsui, Kazuhiro Yasuda, Kosuke Suzuki, Hideya Takeuchi, Takashi Nishizaki, Hidefumi Higashi and Shoichi Era

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:187

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Carcinosarcoma of the colon is a rare histopathological entity with uncertain histogenesis, that shows both epithelial and mesenchymal malignant differentiation. Carcinosarcoma rarely affects the gastrointesti...

    Authors: Andrea Ambrosini-Spaltro, Valentina Vaira, Paola Braidotti, Marco PL Rovati, Stefano Ferrero and Silvano Bosari

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:185

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  34. Content type: Research article

    In most patients with ovarian cancer, diagnosis occurs after the tumour has disseminated beyond the ovaries. In these cases, post-surgical taxane/platinum combination chemotherapy is the "gold standard". Howev...

    Authors: Jürgen Sonnemann, Jennifer Gänge, Sabine Pilz, Christine Stötzer, Ralf Ohlinger, Antje Belau, Gerd Lorenz and James F Beck

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:183

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), the key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, is involved in critical steps of tumor onset and progression, and is a strong predictor of chemotherapy resist...

    Authors: Gabriella Ferrandina, Franco O Ranelletti, Enrica Martinelli, Amelia Paglia, Gian Franco Zannoni and Giovanni Scambia

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:182

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins. The inducible isoform of COX (COX-2) is highly expressed in aggressive metastatic breast cancers and may play a ...

    Authors: Teri L Larkins, Marchele Nowell, Shailesh Singh and Gary L Sanford

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:181

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  37. Content type: Research article

    A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) represents a unilateral chromosomal loss that reduces the dose of highly repetitive Alu, L1, and LTR retroelements. The aim of this study was to determine if the LOH events can affe...

    Authors: Young-Ho Kim, Seung-Jin Hong, Yu-Chae Jung, Sung-Ja Kim, Eun-Joo Seo, Sang-Wook Choi and Mun-Gan Rhyu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:180

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The primary aim of treatment of a patient who has developed metastatic disease is palliation. The objectives of the current study are to describe and quantify the clinical management of women with metastatic b...

    Authors: Klaartje Manders, Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse, Geert-Jan Creemers, Gerard Vreugdenhil, Maurice JC van der Sangen, Grard AP Nieuwenhuijzen, Rudi MH Roumen and Adri C Voogd

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:179

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in most parts of the world but is common in southern China. A recent report from the Hong Kong Cancer Registry, a high-risk area for NPC in southern China, s...

    Authors: Wei-Hua Jia, Qi-Hong Huang, Jian Liao, Weimin Ye, YY Shugart, Qing Liu, Li-Zhen Chen, Yan-Hua Li, Xiao Lin, Fa-Lin Wen, Hans-Olov Adami, Yi Zeng and Yi-Xin Zeng

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:178

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Neuroblastoma is a frequently lethal pediatric cancer in which MYCN genomic amplification is highly correlated with aggressive disease. Deregulated MYC genes require co-operative lesions to foster tumourigenesis ...

    Authors: Vincent Dam, Brian T Morgan, Pavel Mazanek and Michael D Hogarty

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:177

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  41. Content type: Research article

    It has recently been shown that overexpression of the serine protease, matriptase, in transgenic mice causes a dramatically increased frequency of carcinoma formation. Overexpression of HAI-1 and matriptase to...

    Authors: Lotte K Vogel, Mona Sæbø, Camilla F Skjelbred, Kathrine Abell, Esben DK Pedersen, Ulla Vogel and Elin H Kure

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:176

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  42. Content type: Research article

    The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer is mainly associated with lifestyle factors and may be modulated by several genetic factors of low penetrance. Genetic variants represented by single nucleotide polymorph...

    Authors: Camilla F Skjelbred, Mona Sæbø, Bjørn A Nexø, Håkan Wallin, Inger-Lise Hansteen, Ulla Vogel and Elin H Kure

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:175

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  43. Content type: Research article

    The effect of current therapies in improving the survival of lung cancer patients remains far from satisfactory. It is consequently desirable to find more appropriate therapeutic opportunities based on informe...

    Authors: Akihiko Gemma, Cai Li, Yuka Sugiyama, Kuniko Matsuda, Yoko Seike, Seiji Kosaihira, Yuji Minegishi, Rintaro Noro, Michiya Nara, Masahiro Seike, Akinobu Yoshimura, Aki Shionoya, Akiko Kawakami, Naoki Ogawa, Haruka Uesaka and Shoji Kudoh

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:174

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  44. Content type: Research article

    A cohort study was conducted to examine the role of genetic polymorphisms in three estrogen metabolizing enzymes (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1) and the two estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2) in the progression of benign bre...

    Authors: Lisa Gallicchio, Sonja I Berndt, Meghan A McSorley, Craig J Newschaffer, Lucy W Thuita, Pedram Argani, Sandra C Hoffman and Kathy J Helzlsouer

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:173

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is a cytotoxic anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody that has given promising preliminary results in adult myeloid CD33+ AML. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of 12 children tr...

    Authors: Benoit Brethon, Anne Auvrignon, Claire Galambrun, Karima Yakouben, Thierry Leblanc, Yves Bertrand, Guy Leverger and André Baruchel

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:172

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  46. Content type: Case report

    The occurrence of skeletal muscle metastases is a very rare event. Only two cases of late skeletal muscle recurrence from cervical cancer have been documented until now.

    Authors: Gabriella Ferrandina, Vanda Salutari, Antonia Testa, Gian Franco Zannoni, Marco Petrillo and Giovanni Scambia

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2006 6:169

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