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Medical and radiation oncology

Section edited by Dirk Vordermark

This section focuses on clinical research that impacts on the treatment of cancer using systemic chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiation.

Page 13 of 15

  1. Content type: Case report

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare idiopathic disorder that occurs in women of childbearing age, and consists of a diffuse proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells along the thoracic and abdominal l...

    Authors: Kensuke Suzuki, Kazunori Nagasaka, Katsutoshi Oda, Hiroyuki Abe, Daichi Maeda, Yoko Matsumoto, Takahide Arimoto, Kei Kawana, Masashi Fukayama, Yutaka Osuga and Tomoyuki Fujii

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:390

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare. Given the paucity of randomized trials, treatment is generally extrapolated from female breast cancer guidelines.

    Authors: Piera Gargiulo, Matilde Pensabene, Monica Milano, Grazia Arpino, Mario Giuliano, Valeria Forestieri, Caterina Condello, Rossella Lauria and Sabino De Placido

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:375

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  3. Content type: Debate

    Every year 170,000 patients are diagnosed with brain metastases (BMs) in the United States. Traditionally, adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy (AWBRT) has been offered following local therapy with neurosurgery (...

    Authors: Gerald B. Fogarty, Angela Hong, Vinai Gondi, Bryan Burmeister, Kari Jacobsen, Serigne Lo, Elizabeth Paton, Brindha Shivalingam and John F. Thompson

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:372

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is the prototype for cohesinopathy disorders, which are characterized by defects in chromosome segregation. Kidney malformations, including nephrogenic rests, are common in Cornelia ...

    Authors: Claudia Santoro, Andrea Apicella, Fiorina Casale, Angela La Manna, Martina Di Martino, Daniela Di Pinto, Cristiana Indolfi and Silverio Perrotta

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:365

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  5. Content type: Research article

    For patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), targeted therapies have entered the market since 2006. The aims of this study were to evaluate the uptake and use of targeted therapies for mRCC in The...

    Authors: S. De Groot, S. Sleijfer, W. K. Redekop, E. Oosterwijk, J. B. A. G. Haanen, L. A. L. M. Kiemeney and C. A. Uyl-de Groot

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:364

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system (PCNS-DLBCL) is a distinct clinicopathological entity with a poor prognosis. Concurrent MYC and BCL2 overexpression predicts inferior prognos...

    Authors: Sehui Kim, Soo Jeong Nam, Dohee Kwon, Hannah Kim, Eunyoung Lee, Tae Min Kim, Dae Seog Heo, Sung Hye Park, Chul Woo Kim and Yoon Kyung Jeon

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:363

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  7. Content type: Research article

    To assess the impact of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) compared with 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in patients with newly diagnosed high grade glioma in terms of toxicity, progression free surviva...

    Authors: Pierina Navarria, Federico Pessina, Luca Cozzi, Anna Maria Ascolese, Francesca Lobefalo, Antonella Stravato, Giuseppe D’Agostino, Ciro Franzese, Manuela Caroli, Lorenzo Bello and Marta Scorsetti

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:362

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Short-term starvation prior to chemotherapy administration protects mice against toxicity. We undertook dose-escalation of fasting prior to platinum-based chemotherapy to determine safety and feasibility in ca...

    Authors: Tanya B. Dorff, Susan Groshen, Agustin Garcia, Manali Shah, Denice Tsao-Wei, Huyen Pham, Chia-Wei Cheng, Sebastian Brandhorst, Pinchas Cohen, Min Wei, Valter Longo and David I. Quinn

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:360

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Patients with primary and metastatic liver malignancies represent a highly heterogeneous patient pool characterised by some of the shortest life expectancies amongst oncology patients. Investigation and better...

    Authors: Olga Golubnitschaja, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Helena Stricker, Daniela Trog, Hans H. Schild and Leonard Berliner

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:357

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  10. Content type: Study protocol

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer is a particularly aggressive form of the disease, and ultimately progresses in patients with metastases on standard therapies. Anthracycli...

    Authors: Kathy Miller, Javier Cortes, Sara A. Hurvitz, Ian E. Krop, Debu Tripathy, Sunil Verma, Kaveh Riahi, Joseph G. Reynolds, Thomas J. Wickham, Istvan Molnar and Denise A. Yardley

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:352

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Radical treatment for oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a curative potential for selected patients. The present retrospective study was designed to examine the relevance of synchronous vs....

    Authors: Jochen Fleckenstein, Alev Petroff, Hans-Joachim Schäfers, Thomas Wehler, Jakob Schöpe and Christian Rübe

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:348

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  12. Content type: Research article

    The objective of our study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of postterm choriocarcinoma patients at Peking Union Medical College Hospital within the past 30 years.

    Authors: Jie Li, Junjun Yang, Pengfei Liu, Tong Ren, Jun Zhao, Fengzhi Feng, Xirun Wan and Yang Xiang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:347

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  13. Content type: Study protocol

    Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer whose disease has progressed on oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-containing regimens may benefit from EGFR-inhibiting monoclonal antibodies if they do not contain mutation...

    Authors: Eva Segelov, Paul Waring, Jayesh Desai, Kate Wilson, Val Gebski, Subotheni Thavaneswaran, Elena Elez, Craig Underhill, Nick Pavlakis, Lorraine Chantrill, Louise Nott, Michael Jefford, Mustafa Khasraw, Fiona Day, Harpreet Wasan, Fortunato Ciardiello…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:339

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  14. Content type: Research article

    We investigated the contribution of subsequent therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma refractory or intolerant to sorafenib. Further, we investigated the impact of sorafenib on overall survival using in...

    Authors: Takeshi Terashima, Tatsuya Yamashita, Rika Horii, Kuniaki Arai, Kazunori Kawaguchi, Kazuya Kitamura, Taro Yamashita, Yoshio Sakai, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Masao Honda and Shuichi Kaneko

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:338

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Because inheritance is recognized as playing a role in age at menarche and natural menopause, the development of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) might depend on inherited genetic factors; however, studie...

    Authors: Toralf Reimer, Sarah Kempert, Bernd Gerber, Hans-Jürgen Thiesen, Steffi Hartmann and Dirk Koczan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:337

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Platelet to Lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is thought to be associated with a worse outcome in multiple types of cancer. However, the prognostic significance of PLR has not been investigated in the prostate cancer (PC...

    Authors: Yanqing Wang, Fan Xu, Jiahua Pan, Yinjie Zhu, Xiaoguang Shao, Jianjun Sha, Zezhou Wang, Yong Cai, Qiang Liu, Baijun Dong, Wei Xue and Yiran Huang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:329

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are rare disorders associated with malignant tumours, which are triggered by autoimmune reactions. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is the PNS type most ...

    Authors: Yaofeng Zhu, Shouzhen Chen, Songyu Chen, Jing Song, Fan Chen, Hu Guo, Zhenhua Shang, Yong Wang, Changkuo Zhou and Benkang Shi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:324

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  18. Content type: Research article

    A high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may be related to increased mortality in patients with lung, colorectal, stomach, liver, and pancreatic cancer. To date, the utility of NLR to predict the response t...

    Authors: Yi Chen, Kai Chen, Xiaoyun Xiao, Yan Nie, Shaohua Qu, Chang Gong, Fengxi Su and Erwei Song

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:320

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  19. Content type: Study protocol

    Ovarian function suppression (OFS) has been shown to be effective as adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. However, it is currently unclear if addition...

    Authors: Hyun-Ah Kim, Sei Hyun Ahn, Seok Jin Nam, Seho Park, Jungsil Ro, Seock-Ah Im, Yong Sik Jung, Jung Han Yoon, Min Hee Hur, Yoon Ji Choi, Soo-Jung Lee, Joon Jeong, Se-Heon Cho, Sung Yong Kim, Min Hyuk Lee, Lee Su Kim…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:319

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  20. Content type: Study protocol

    Often curative treatment for locally advanced resectable esophageal or gastro-esophageal junctional cancer consists of concurrent neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy followed by surgery. Currently, one o...

    Authors: Mathieu Messager, Xavier Mirabel, Emmanuelle Tresch, Amaury Paumier, Véronique Vendrely, Laetitia Dahan, Olivier Glehen, Frederique Vasseur, Thomas Lacornerie, Guillaume Piessen, Farid El Hajbi, William B. Robb, Stéphanie Clisant, Andrew Kramar, Christophe Mariette and Antoine Adenis

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:318

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  21. Content type: Research article

    The development of metastases is a negative prognostic parameter for the clinical outcome of breast cancer. Bone constitutes the first site of distant metastases for many affected women. The purpose of this re...

    Authors: Joachim Diessner, Manfred Wischnewsky, Tanja Stüber, Roland Stein, Mathias Krockenberger, Sebastian Häusler, Wolfgang Janni, Rolf Kreienberg, Maria Blettner, Lukas Schwentner, Achim Wöckel and Catharina Bartmann

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:307

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The addition of bevacizumab to cytotoxic agents prolongs survival in patients with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, there is no evidence to suggest that treatment with a cytotoxic agent...

    Authors: Toshiyuki Kozuki, Naoyuki Nogami, Hiromoto Kitajima, Shunichiro Iwasawa, Emiko Sakaida, Yuichi Takiguchi, Satoshi Ikeda, Masahiro Yoshida, Terufumi Kato, Shingo Miyamoto, Kentaro Sakamaki, Tetsu Shinkai and Koshiro Watanabe

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:306

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  23. Content type: Case report

    Tamoxifen, a common anti-estrogen breast cancer medication, is a prodrug that undergoes bioactivation via cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2D6 and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 to form the active metabolite endoxifen. Wi...

    Authors: Sara L. Henderson, Wendy A. Teft and Richard B. Kim

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:304

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  24. Content type: Research article

    The optimal conduct of follow-up (FU) of patients with osteosarcoma is uncertain. In the absence of any formal validation of optimal timing and method of surveillance, guidance is provided by oncology societie...

    Authors: Christian Rothermundt, Beatrice M. Seddon, Palma Dileo, Sandra J. Strauss, Joanne Coleman, Timothy W. Briggs, Sarah R. Haile and Jeremy S. Whelan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:301

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The study aimed to compare urinary symptoms in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer after a combination of either low-dose-rate or high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy along with intensity-m...

    Authors: Satoshi Nakamura, Naoya Murakami, Koji Inaba, Akihisa Wakita, Kazuma Kobayashi, Kana Takahashi, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Rei Umezawa, Madoka Morota, Minako Sumi, Hiroshi Igaki, Yoshinori Ito and Jun Itami

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:296

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  26. Content type: Research article

    This study was performed to design a predictive tool that allows the estimation of overall survival (OS) of elderly myeloma patients (aged ≥65 years) presenting with myeloma-induced spinal cord compression (SCC).

    Authors: Dirk Rades, Antonio Jose Conde-Moreno, Jon Cacicedo, Theo Veninga, Niklas Gebauer, Tobias Bartscht and Steven E. Schild

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:292

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  27. Content type: Study protocol

    Despite novel therapeutic agents, most multiple myeloma (MM) patients eventually relapse. Two large phase III trials have shown significantly improved response rates (RR) of lenalidomide/dexamethasone compared...

    Authors: Marc-Andrea Baertsch, Jana Schlenzka, Elias K. Mai, Maximilian Merz, Jens Hillengaß, Marc S. Raab, Dirk Hose, Patrick Wuchter, Anthony D. Ho, Anna Jauch, Thomas Hielscher, Christina Kunz, Steffen Luntz, Stefan Klein, Ingo G. H. Schmidt-Wolf, Martin Goerner…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:290

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Increasing the biological effective dose (BED) of radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can increase local control rates and improve overall survival. Compared with conventional fractionated radi...

    Authors: Xiao-Cang Ren, Quan-Yu Wang, Rui Zhang, Xue-Ji Chen, Na Wang, Yue-E Liu, Jie Zong, Zhi-Jun Guo, Dong-Ying Wang and Qiang Lin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:288

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Ependymal tumors in adults are rare, accounting for less than 4 % of primary tumors of the central nervous system in this age group. The low prevalence of intracranial ependymoma in adults limits the ability t...

    Authors: Dorothee Gramatzki, Patrick Roth, Jörg Felsberg, Silvia Hofer, Elisabeth J. Rushing, Bettina Hentschel, Manfred Westphal, Dietmar Krex, Matthias Simon, Oliver Schnell, Wolfgang Wick, Guido Reifenberger and Michael Weller

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:287

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Adequate circadian timing of cancer treatment schedules (chronotherapy) can enhance tolerance and efficacy several-fold in experimental and clinical situations. However, the optimal timing varies according to ...

    Authors: Elisabet Ortiz-Tudela, Pasquale F. Innominato, Maria Angeles Rol, Francis Lévi and Juan Antonio Madrid

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:285

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  31. Content type: Study protocol

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a highly aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with rising incidence over the past 30 years in immunocompetent patients. Although outcomes have improved, PCNS...

    Authors: Elisabeth Schorb, Juergen Finke, Andrés J. M. Ferreri, Gabriele Ihorst, Kristina Mikesch, Benjamin Kasenda, Kristina Fritsch, Heidi Fricker, Elvira Burger, Olga Grishina, Elke Valk, Emanuele Zucca and Gerald Illerhaus

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:282

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Few new compounds are available for relapsed osteosarcoma. We retrospectively evaluated the activity of gemcitabine (G) plus docetaxel (D) in patients with relapsed high-grade osteosarcoma and high-grade spind...

    Authors: E. Palmerini, R. L. Jones, E. Marchesi, A. Paioli, M. Cesari, A. Longhi, C. Meazza, L. Coccoli, F. Fagioli, S. Asaftei, G. Grignani, A. Tamburini, S. M. Pollack, P. Picci and S. Ferrari

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:280

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  33. Content type: Study protocol

    Metronomic oral vinorelbine is effective in metastatic NSCLC and malignant pleural mesothelioma, but all the studies published thus far were based upon a variety of empirical and possibly suboptimal schedules,...

    Authors: Xavier Elharrar, Dominique Barbolosi, Joseph Ciccolini, Christophe Meille, Christian Faivre, Bruno Lacarelle, Nicolas André and Fabrice Barlesi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:278

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Rituximab (R) in combination with DHAP is a widely accepted salvage regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A common adverse effect of this protocol is renal tox...

    Authors: K. Lisenko, F. McClanahan, T. Schöning, M. A. Schwarzbich, M. Cremer, T. Dittrich, A. D. Ho and M. Witzens-Harig

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:267

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Endostatin inhibits the pro-angiogenic action of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in different human cancers. This study assessed the efficacy of endostatin combined with c...

    Authors: Xiao-Jiang Sun, Qing-Hua Deng, Xin-Min Yu, Yong-Lin Ji, Yuan-Da Zheng, Hao Jiang, Ya-Ping Xu and Sheng-Lin Ma

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:266

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and relapse, despite high initial response rates to chemotherapy. The primary objective of this trial was to demonstrate...

    Authors: Yan Sun, Ying Cheng, Xuezhi Hao, Jie Wang, Chengping Hu, Baohui Han, Xiaoqing Liu, Li Zhang, Huiping Wan, Zhongjun Xia, Yunpeng Liu, Wei Li, Mei Hou, Helong Zhang, Qingyu Xiu, Yunzhong Zhu…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:265

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Brain metastases (BM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) are a rare event. However, the implications for affected patients are severe, and the incidence has been reported to be increasing. For clinicians, knowledge ...

    Authors: Troels Dreier Christensen, Karen-Lise Garm Spindler, Jesper Andreas Palshof and Dorte Lisbet Nielsen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:260

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Axitinib is a potent inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor family with clinical activity in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Given this biochemical potency, t...

    Authors: Namita Chittoria, Housam Haddad, Paul Elson, Nizar M. Tannir, Laura S. Wood, Robert Dreicer, Jorge A. Garcia, Brian I. Rini and Eric Jonasch

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:254

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  39. Content type: Research article

    The prognostic value of rectal invasion is still unclear in stage IVA cervical cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate patient outcome and prognostic factors in stage IVA cervical cancer treated wit...

    Authors: Masaru Wakatsuki, Shingo Kato, Hiroki Kiyohara, Tatsuya Ohno, Kumiko Karasawa, Tomoaki Tamaki, Ken Ando, Shintaro Shiba, Tadashi Kamada and Takashi Nakano

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:244

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  40. Content type: Case report

    The use of neoadjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma has been shown to reduce disease recurrence when combined with surgery and adjuvant chemothe...

    Authors: Matthew M. Florczynski, Michael S. Sanatani, Lauren Mai, Barbara Fisher, Dwight E. Moulin, Jeffrey Cao, Alexander V. Louie, Janet E. Pope and Eric Leung

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:243

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  41. Content type: Research article

    The diagnostic and prognostic significance of increased cathepsin B (CTSB) and cathepsin D (CTSD) concentration in the serum of cancer patients were evaluated for some tumor types. High expression of CTSD and ...

    Authors: Gongjun Tan, Qianxu Liu, Xiaowei Tang, Ting Kang, Yuejin Li, Jinping Lu, Xiaoming Zhao and Faqing Tang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:241

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Cancer services are inaccessible in many low-income countries, and few published examples describe oncology programs within the public sector. In 2011, the Rwanda Ministry of Health (RMOH) established Butaro C...

    Authors: Neo M. Tapela, Tharcisse Mpunga, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Molly Moore, Egide Mpanumusingo, Mary Jue Xu, Ignace Nzayisenga, Vedaste Hategekimana, Denis Gilbert Umuhizi, Lydia E. Pace, Jean Bosco Bigirimana, JingJing Wang, Caitlin Driscoll, Frank R. Uwizeye, Peter C. Drobac, Gedeon Ngoga…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:237

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  43. Content type: Research article

    In the analysis of survival data for cancer patients, the problem of competing risks is often ignored. Competing risks have been recognized as a special case of time-to-event analysis. The conventional techniq...

    Authors: Yen-Hou Chang, Wai-Hou Li, Yi Chang, Chia-Wen Peng, Ching-Hsuan Cheng, Wei-Pin Chang and Chi-Mu Chuang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:235

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  44. Content type: Case report

    Systemic chemotherapy combined with steroids used as prophylactic antiemetics have been reported to induce immunosuppression. Further, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection has been reported to occur in pat...

    Authors: Masaaki Saito, Hirokazu Kiyozaki, Tamotu Obitsu, Hirofumi Imoto, Yusuke Taniyama, Osamu Takata and Toshiki Rikiyama

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:233

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  45. Content type: Case report

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant tumor susceptibility syndrome, and the disease-related gene has been identified as fumarate hydratase (fumarase, FH). HLRCC-asso...

    Authors: Takao Kamai, Hideyuki Abe, Kyoko Arai, Satoshi Murakami, Setsu Sakamoto, Yasushi Kaji and Ken-Ichiro Yoshida

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:232

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  46. Content type: Research article

    To compare the effects of resistance training versus passive physical therapy on bone turnover markers (BTM) in the metastatic bone during radiation therapy (RT) in patients with spinal bone metastases. Second...

    Authors: Harald Rief, Georg Omlor, Michael Akbar, Thomas Bruckner, Stefan Rieken, Robert Förster, Ingmar Schlampp, Thomas Welzel, Tilman Bostel, Heinz Jürgen Roth and Jürgen Debus

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:231

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  47. Content type: Research article

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are crucially involved in the regulation of multiple stages of cancer progression. Elevated MMP levels have been associated with the development of metastases and poor prognosi...

    Authors: Pierre Kunz, Heiner Sähr, Burkhard Lehner, Christian Fischer, Elisabeth Seebach and Jörg Fellenberg

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:223

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Nephrotoxicity is the major side effect that limits the dose of cisplatin that can be safely administered, and it is a clinical problem in cancer patients who received cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Recen...

    Authors: Ko Sato, Satoshi Watanabe, Aya Ohtsubo, Satoshi Shoji, Daisuke Ishikawa, Tomohiro Tanaka, Koichiro Nozaki, Rie Kondo, Masaaki Okajima, Satoru Miura, Junta Tanaka, Takuro Sakagami, Toshiyuki Koya, Hiroshi Kagamu, Hirohisa Yoshizawa and Ichiei Narita

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:222

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  49. Content type: Research article

    To retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of Vinflunine (VFL) under routine conditions and identify overall survival (OS) prognostic factors.

    Authors: Jacques Médioni, Mario Di Palma, Aline Guillot, Dominique Spaeth and Christine Théodore

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:217

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