Skip to main content


Infection, immunity and cancer vaccines

Section edited by Christophe Nicot

This section focuses on all aspects of infectious agents associated with cancer and tumor immunology. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, tumor immunity, immunotherapy, cancer vaccines, viral carcinogenesis and virus-host interactions.

Page 2 of 4

  1. Content type: Research article

    The prognostic effect of elevated systemic inflammatory markers, including neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), remains controversial in cancer patients. This meta-analysis wa...

    Authors: Ying Zhu, Sanqin Zhou, Yang Liu, Lingyun Zhai and Xiwen Sun

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:443

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Technical advance

    Tumor neoantigens are drivers of cancer immunotherapy response; however, current prediction tools produce many candidates requiring further prioritization. Additional filtration criteria and population-level u...

    Authors: Mary A. Wood, Mayur Paralkar, Mihir P. Paralkar, Austin Nguyen, Adam J. Struck, Kyle Ellrott, Adam Margolin, Abhinav Nellore and Reid F. Thompson

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:414

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are part of a heterogeneous family of haematopoietic effector cells which lack re-arranged antigen-specific receptors. They promote host defense and contribute to tissue and metabol...

    Authors: Maryam Salimi, Ruozheng Wang, Xuan Yao, Xi Li, Xiyan Wang, Yuhui Hu, Xumei Chang, Peiwen Fan, Tao Dong and Graham Ogg

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:341

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research article

    We conducted a phase I/Ib, open-label, single-arm trial to assess the safety, tolerability and optimal scheduling regimen of OTSGC-A24 cancer vaccine in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    Authors: Raghav Sundar, Sun Young Rha, Hiroki Yamaue, Masahiro Katsuda, Koji Kono, Hyo Song Kim, Chan Kim, Kousaku Mimura, Ley-Fang Kua and Wei Peng Yong

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:332

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    The prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) varies widely. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of high-risk HPV DNA in a l...

    Authors: Priscila Marinho de Abreu, Anna Clara Gregório Có, Pedro Leite Azevedo, Isabella Bittencourt do Valle, Karine Gadioli de Oliveira, Sônia Alves Gouvea, Melissa Freitas Cordeiro-Silva, Iúri Drummond Louro, José Roberto Vasconcelos de Podestá, Jeferson Lenzi, Agenor Sena, Elismauro Francisco Mendonça and Sandra Lúcia Ventorin von Zeidler

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:324

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC), although infrequent in industrialized countries, has high incidence rates in certain world regions, being a leading cause of death among elderly Chilean women. Surgery is the only eff...

    Authors: Paula Fluxá, Daniel Rojas-Sepúlveda, María Alejandra Gleisner, Andrés Tittarelli, Pablo Villegas, Loreto Tapia, María Teresa Rivera, Mercedes Natalia López, Felipe Catán, Mario Uribe and Flavio Salazar-Onfray

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:243

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Study protocol

    There is now a renewed interest in cancer vaccines. Patients responding to immune checkpoint blockade usually bear tumors that are heavily infiltrated by T cells and express a high load of neoantigens, indicat...

    Authors: Sheeba K. Thomas, Soung-chul Cha, D. Lynne Smith, Kun Hwa Kim, Sapna R. Parshottam, Sheetal Rao, Michael Popescu, Vincent Y. Lee, Sattva S. Neelapu and Larry W. Kwak

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:187

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research article

    Breast cancer is considered the most common cancer in women worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Sequences similar to Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) were detected in human breast cancer in...

    Authors: Reem Al Dossary, Khaled R. Alkharsah and Haitham Kussaibi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:170

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can not only effectively kill hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumour cells but also release tumour antigens that can provoke an immune response. However, there is no consensus rega...

    Authors: Shunli Shen, Hong Peng, Ye Wang, Ming Xu, Manxia Lin, Xiaoyan Xie, Baogang Peng and Ming Kuang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:117

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    The new nine-valent vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) includes the four HPV genotypes (6, 11, 16, and 18) that are targeted by the older quadrivalent HPV vaccine, plus five additional oncogenic types ...

    Authors: María Paz-Zulueta, Ledicia Álvarez-Paredes, Juan Carlos Rodríguez Díaz, Paula Parás-Bravo, Ma. Encarnación Andrada Becerra, José María Rodríguez Ingelmo, María Montserrat Ruiz García, Joaquín Portilla and Miguel Santibañez

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:112

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    Patients with highly mutated tumors, such as melanoma or smoking-related lung cancer, have higher rates of response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy, perhaps due to increased neoantigen expression. Many c...

    Authors: Timothy O’Donnell, Elizabeth L. Christie, Arun Ahuja, Jacqueline Buros, B. Arman Aksoy, David D. L. Bowtell, Alexandra Snyder and Jeff Hammerbacher

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:87

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a potential predictive biomarker of the response to anti-PD-L1/anti- programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) therapy in multiple cancers, including triple negative breast cance...

    Authors: Ming Li, Anqi Li, Shuling Zhou, Yan Xu, Yaoxing Xiao, Rui Bi and Wentao Yang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:4

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    Immunologic factors can promote the progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc). The phylogenetic highly conserved protein Galectin 3 (Gal3) contributes to cell differentiation and immune homeostasis. ...

    Authors: Manuel Weber, Maike Büttner-Herold, Luitpold Distel, Jutta Ries, Patrick Moebius, Raimund Preidl, Carol I. Geppert, Friedrich W. Neukam and Falk Wehrhan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:906

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Software

    Adoptive immunotherapy offers great potential for treating many types of cancer but its clinical application is hampered by cross-reactive T cell responses in healthy human tissues, representing serious safety...

    Authors: Victor Jaravine, Anja Mösch, Silke Raffegerst, Dolores J. Schendel and Dmitrij Frishman

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:892

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research article

    The tumor immune environment not only modulates the effects of immunotherapy, but also the effects of other anticancer drugs and treatment outcomes. These immune responses can be evaluated with tumor-infiltrat...

    Authors: Yuka Asano, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Wataru Goto, Koji Takada, Katsuyuki Takahashi, Takaharu Hatano, Satoru Noda, Tsutomu Takashima, Naoyoshi Onoda, Shuhei Tomita, Hisashi Motomura, Masahiko Ohsawa, Kosei Hirakawa and Masaichi Ohira

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:888

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of a novel dendritic cell (DC) vaccine pulsed with survivin and MUC1, silenced with suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), and immune stimulated wi...

    Authors: Chunlei Ge, Ruilei Li, Haifeng Song, Tao Geng, Jinyan Yang, Qinghua Tan, Linfeng Song, Ying Wang, Yuanbo Xue, Zhen Li, Suwei Dong, Zhiwei Zhang, Na Zhang, Jiyin Guo, Lin Hua, Siyi Chen…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:884

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are easily obtained from routine blood tests. We investigated the associations of the NLR and PLR with the clinical parameters an...

    Authors: Dan Liu, Yi Huang, Lei Li, Juan Song, Li Zhang and Weimin Li

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:882

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    Right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colon cancer (LCC) differ with respect to their biology and genomic patterns, but inflammatory index variation did not fully investigate. This study aimed to exami...

    Authors: Lin Yang, Wenzhuo He, Pengfei Kong, Chang Jiang, Qiong Yang, Qiankun Xie and Liang Ping Xia

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:873

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    The increasing incidence and poor outcome associated with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) requires finding an effective treatment for this disease. Inhibitory B7-H4 is expressed in many different human cancer...

    Authors: Cheng Chen, Qiu-Xia Qu, Fang Xie, Wei-Dong Zhu, Ye-Han Zhu and Jian-An Huang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:652

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Case report

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) reports from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are remarkably rare, despite early childhood acquisition and high prevalence of the causative infectious agent, Epstein-Barr virus (...

    Authors: Tamiwe Tomoka, Eric Powers, Toon van der Gronde, Amy Amuquandoh, Bal Mukunda Dhungel, Coxcilly Kampani, Steve Kamiza, Nathan D. Montgomery, Yuri Fedoriw and Satish Gopal

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:633

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Case report

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), nasal type, is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Currently, there is no recommended standard therapy for relapsed NKTCL.

    Authors: Jianping Lai, Peng Xu, Xiaoliu Jiang, Shan Zhou and Anwen Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:507

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Research article

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) acts in the innate immune response to Helicobacter pylori. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a potent cytokine produced by gastric epithelial cells in response to H. pylori. We aimed to investi...

    Authors: Young Woon Chang, Chi Hyuk Oh, Jung-Wook Kim, Jae Won Lee, Mi Ju Park, Jae-Jun Shim, Chang Kyun Lee, Jae-Young Jang, Seok Ho Dong, Hyo Jong Kim, Sung Soo Kim and Byung-Ho Kim

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:388

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection activates a signaling cascade that induces production of cytokines and chemokines involved...

    Authors: Norma Sánchez-Zauco, Javier Torres, Alejandro Gómez, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Leopoldo Muñoz-Pérez, Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Rafael Medrano-Guzmán, Silvia Giono-Cerezo and Carmen Maldonado-Bernal

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:384

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Cancer 2017 17:669

  24. Content type: Research article

    Prognostic factors aid in the stratification and treatment of cancer. This study evaluated prognostic importance of tumor infiltrating immune cell in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Authors: Juan Fang, Xiaoxu Li, Da Ma, Xiangqi Liu, Yichen Chen, Yun Wang, Vivian Wai Yan Lui, Juan Xia, Bin Cheng and Zhi Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:375

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Breast cancer is one of the most important neoplasia among women. It was recently suggested that biological agents could be the etiological cause, particularly Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The aim of this stud...

    Authors: Silvia Delgado-García, Juan-Carlos Martínez-Escoriza, Alfonso Alba, Tina-Aurora Martín-Bayón, Hortensia Ballester-Galiana, Gloria Peiró, Pablo Caballero and Jose Ponce-Lorenzo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:320

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Debate

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century, infection has emerged as a fundamental aspect of cancer causation with a growing number of pathogens recognized as oncogenic. Meanwhile, oncolytic viruses have als...

    Authors: Camille Jacqueline, Aurélie Tasiemski, Gabriele Sorci, Beata Ujvari, Fatima Maachi, Dorothée Missé, François Renaud, Paul Ewald, Frédéric Thomas and Benjamin Roche

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:257

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health issue worldwide. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and Th17 (T-helper cell type 17)-related molecules are involved in tumor development and in resistance to bevacizumab, an anti...

    Authors: Emilie Lereclus, Mira Tout, Alban Girault, Nadine Baroukh, Morgane Caulet, Christophe Borg, Olivier Bouché, David Ternant, Gilles Paintaud, Thierry Lecomte and William Raoul

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:220

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common and lethal type of cancer worldwide. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is recognized as the major cause of gastric cancer. However, it remains unclear the mec...

    Authors: Ivonne Lozano-Pope, Arnika Sharma, Michael Matthias, Kelly S. Doran and Marygorret Obonyo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:133

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates....

    Authors: Ritu Jaiswal, Michael S. Johnson, Deep Pokharel, S. Rajeev Krishnan and Mary Bebawy

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2017 17:104

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Using killed microorganisms or their parts to stimulate immunity for cancer treatment dates back to the end of 19th century. Since then, it undergone considerable development. Our novel approach binds ligands to ...

    Authors: Veronika Caisová, Andra Vieru, Zuzana Kumžáková, Simona Glaserová, Hana Husníková, Nikol Vácová, Gabriela Krejčová, Lucie Paďouková, Ivana Jochmanová, Katherine I. Wolf, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký and Jan Ženka

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:940

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared with women from the general population (WGP). We assessed ...

    Authors: Kristina Thorsteinsson, Merete Storgaard, Terese L. Katzenstein, Steen Ladelund, Frederikke Falkencrone Rønsholt, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Gitte Pedersen, Lailoma Hashemi, Lars Nørregård Nielsen, Lisbeth Nilas, Niels Obel, Jesper Bonde and Anne-Mette Lebech

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:866

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research article

    The aims of this study were to detect HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression in women with high-risk genotypes (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 and -45) analysing its relationship with tissue pathology and 2) 2-year follow-up of E6/...

    Authors: Nerea Fontecha, Miren Basaras, Silvia Hernáez, Daniel Andía and Ramón Cisterna

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:852

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research article

    For several decades now an antagonism between Trypanosoma cruzi infection and tumor development has been detected. The molecular basis of this phenomenon remained basically unknown until our proposal that T. cruz...

    Authors: Paula Abello-Cáceres, Javier Pizarro-Bauerle, Carlos Rosas, Ismael Maldonado, Lorena Aguilar-Guzmán, Carlos González, Galia Ramírez, Jorge Ferreira and Arturo Ferreira

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:731

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a cytokine that has been reported to exhibit potent tumoricidal effects in animal tumor models. A combined approach using Paclitaxel and platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the mos...

    Authors: Ting Yue, Xiaodong Zheng, Yaling Dou, Xiaohu Zheng, Rui Sun, Zhigang Tian and Haiming Wei

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:665

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research article

    Cancer of the ovary is mostly discovered at a late stage and cannot be removed by surgery alone. Therefore surgery is usually followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. However, few reliable biomarkers exist to predic...

    Authors: Raoul A. Droeser, Robert Mechera, Silvio Däster, Benjamin Weixler, Marko Kraljević, Tarik Delko, Uwe Güth, Sylvia Stadlmann, Luigi Terracciano and Gad Singer

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:639

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research article

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), particularly the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, down regulate immunity and promote tumor cell growth by directly suppressing CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Alternatively they can promote tumor growth ...

    Authors: Yang Yu, Run Huang, Xiangyun Zong, Xiangming He and Wenju Mo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:397

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research article

    The lack of positive costimulatory molecules represents one of the mechanisms by which tumor cells evade immune surveillance. Promoter hypermethylation plays a major role in cancer development through transcri...

    Authors: Marco Scarpa, Melania Scarpa, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Francesca Erroi, Silvia Basato, Paola Brun, Imerio Angriman and Carlo Castoro

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:388

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    Human papillomavirus DNA detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been linked to improved patient prognosis. The main aims of the study was to test the hypotheses that HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene and p5...

    Authors: Liam Masterson, David M. Winder, Siolian L. R. Ball, Katie Vaughan, Martin Lehmann, Lars-Uwe Scholtz, Jane C. Sterling, Holger H. Sudhoff and Peter K. C. Goon

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:367

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research article

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis, and advances in treatment have led to only marginal increases in overall survival. We and others have shown previously that the...

    Authors: Danielle M. Lussier, Eric C. Woolf, John L. Johnson, Kenneth S. Brooks, Joseph N. Blattman and Adrienne C. Scheck

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:310

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    The ras genes play an important role in the development and progression of human tumours. Neutralizing Ras proteins in the cytoplasm could be an effective approach to blocking ras signalling. In this study, we pr...

    Authors: Ju-Lun Yang, Du-Xian Liu, Shi-Jian Zhen, Yun-Gang Zhou, Dai-Jun Zhang, Li-Ying Yang, Hao-Bing Chen and Qiang Feng

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2016 16:131

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    Tumor immune-escape has been related to the ability of cancer cells to inhibit T cell activation and dendritic cell (DC) differentiation. We previously identified a tumor initiating population, expressing the ...

    Authors: Cristina Grange, Marta Tapparo, Stefania Tritta, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Antonino Battaglia, Paolo Gontero, Bruno Frea and Giovanni Camussi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2015 15:1009

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    As ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, invasion, metastasis, and chemo-resistance, new stratagems that selectively target ovarian CSCs are critically significant. Our previou...

    Authors: Xiaofen Yao, Zhangli Dong, Qiuwan Zhang, Qian Wang and Dongmei Lai

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2015 15:956

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Research article

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that autoantibodies in breast cancer sera are not epiphenomena, and exhibit unique immunologic features resembling the rheumatic autoimmune diseases.

    Authors: Félix Fernández Madrid, Marie-Claire Maroun, Ofelia A Olivero, Michael Long, Azadeh Stark, Lawrence I Grossman, Walter Binder, Jingsheng Dong, Matthew Burke, S David Nathanson, Richard Zarbo, Dhananjay Chitale, Rocío Zeballos-Chávez and Carol Peebles

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2015 15:407

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research article

    Cyclophosphamide treatment on a six-day repeating metronomic schedule induces a dramatic, innate immune cell-dependent regression of implanted gliomas. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms ...

    Authors: Joshua C Doloff and David J Waxman

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2015 15:375

    Published on:

  45. Content type: Technical advance

    The complex cellular networks within tumors, the cytokine milieu, and tumor immune escape mechanisms affecting infiltration and anti-tumor activity of immune cells are of great interest to understand tumor for...

    Authors: Ariane Giannattasio, Sandra Weil, Stephan Kloess, Nariman Ansari, Ernst H K Stelzer, Adelheid Cerwenka, Alexander Steinle, Ulrike Koehl and Joachim Koch

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2015 15:351

    Published on:

  46. Content type: Research article

    Up to 50% of penile squamous cell carcinomas (pSCC) develop in the context of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. Most of these tumours have been reported to show basaloid differentiation and ov...

    Authors: Julie Steinestel, Andreas Al Ghazal, Annette Arndt, Thomas J Schnoeller, Andres J Schrader, Peter Moeller and Konrad Steinestel

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2015 15:220

    Published on:

  47. Content type: Research article

    Studies evaluating the presence of viral sequences in breast cancer (BC), including various strains of human papillomavirus and human herpes virus, have yielded conflicting results. Most were based on RT-PCR and

    Authors: Danai Fimereli, David Gacquer, Debora Fumagalli, Roberto Salgado, Françoise Rothé, Denis Larsimont, Christos Sotiriou and Vincent Detours

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2015 15:147

    Published on: