Skip to main content


Infection, immunity and cancer vaccines

Section edited by Christophe Nicot

This section focuses on all aspects of infectious agents associated with cancer and tumor immunology. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, tumor immunity, immunotherapy, cancer vaccines, viral carcinogenesis and virus-host interactions.

Page 1 of 4

  1. Content type: Research article

    NY-BR-1 has been described as a breast cancer associated differentiation antigen with intrinsic immunogenicity giving rise to endogenous T and B cell responses. The current study presents the first murine tumo...

    Authors: Krishna Das, David Eisel, Mathias Vormehr, Karin Müller-Decker, Adriane Hommertgen, Dirk Jäger, Inka Zörnig, Markus Feuerer, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Wolfram Osen and Stefan B. Eichmüller

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:914

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Technical advance

    Bispecific T-cell engaging antibodies (BiTES), comprising dual anti-CD3 and anti-tumor antigen scFv fragments, are important therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. The dual scFv construct for BiTES re...

    Authors: Maciej Kujawski, Lin Li, Supriyo Bhattacharya, Patty Wong, Wen-Hui Lee, Lindsay Williams, Harry Li, Junie Chea, Kofi Poku, Nicole Bowles, Nagarajan Vaidehi, Paul Yazaki and John E. Shively

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:882

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research article

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is thought to have an oncogenic effect on the development of gastric malignancies. However, the effect of H. pylori status on the prognosis of gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...

    Authors: Yuan Cheng, Yinan Xiao, Ruofan Zhou, Yi Liao, Jing Zhou and Xuelei Ma

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:842

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research article

    To develop a new 18 high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) detection and genotyping assay, which is important to evaluate the risk degree of HR HPV for causing cancers.

    Authors: Xushan Cai, Qinghua Guan, Yu Huan, Ziyu Liu, Jiehua Qi and Shichao Ge

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:825

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research article

    Natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction following cancer surgery has been shown to promote metastases. Recent studies demonstrate an emerging role for lipids in the modulation of NK cell innate responses. However...

    Authors: Seyedeh Raheleh Niavarani, Christine Lawson, Orneala Bakos, Marie Boudaud, Cory Batenchuk, Samuel Rouleau and Lee-Hwa Tai

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:823

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research article

    There is currently no evidence that hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype affects survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to investigate whether the HCV genotype affected the surv...

    Authors: Hye Kyong Park, Sang Soo Lee, Chang Bin Im, Changjo Im, Ra Ri Cha, Wan Soo Kim, Hyun Chin Cho, Jae Min Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Woon Tae Jung and Ok-Jae Lee

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:822

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Case report

    Acquired immunodeficiency associated with thymoma is a rare disorder. Here we reported a case of acquired immunodeficiency with thymoma, with an unusual pattern of low CD4+ count with normal gammaglobulin levels.

    Authors: Takahisa Kawamura, Tateaki Naito, Haruki Kobayashi, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Shota Omori, Kazushige Wakuda, Akira Ono, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Haruyasu Murakami, Masahiro Endo and Toshiaki Takahashi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:762

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Review

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of liver cancer, but the mechanisms by which HBV causes liver cancer are poorly understood and chemotherapeutic strategies to cure liver cancer are not available. A...

    Authors: Joseph Torresi, Bang Manh Tran, Dale Christiansen, Linda Earnest-Silveira, Renate Hilda Marianne Schwab and Elizabeth Vincan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:707

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research article

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) were approved to have a significant antitumor activity in various tumor types. In practice, some patients do not seem to benefit from ICIs but rather to have accelerating di...

    Authors: Zhi Ji, Zhi Peng, Jifang Gong, Xiaotian Zhang, Jian Li, Ming Lu, Zhihao Lu and Lin Shen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:705

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research article

    In a prospective study with long-term follow-up, we analyzed circulating T cell subsets in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in the context of primary tumor sidedness, KRAS status, and clinical ou...

    Authors: Beatrix Bencsikova, Eva Budinska, Iveta Selingerova, Katerina Pilatova, Lenka Fedorova, Kristina Greplova, Rudolf Nenutil, Dalibor Valik, Radka Obermannova, Michael A. Sheard and Lenka Zdrazilova-Dubska

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:687

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research article

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease with an enigmatic etiology. NPC associates with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomaviruses (HPVs), while immunological factors also play a role in...

    Authors: Miia Ruuskanen, Ilmo Leivo, Heikki Minn, Tero Vahlberg, Caj Haglund, Jaana Hagström and Heikki Irjala

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:624

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research article

    A higher density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can lead to greater therapeutic effects and improved prognoses in cancer treatment. Similar results have been observed in breast cancer, particularly i...

    Authors: Koji Takada, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Yuka Asano, Wataru Goto, Katsuyuki Takahashi, Hisakazu Fujita, Tsutomu Takashima, Shuhei Tomita, Kosei Hirakawa and Masaichi Ohira

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:615

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research article

    Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors have remarkable clinical efficacy in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the breakdown of ...

    Authors: Xiaoying Sun, Raheleh Roudi, Ting Dai, Shangya Chen, Bin Fan, Hongjin Li, Yaqiong Zhou, Min Zhou, Bo Zhu, Chengqian Yin, Bin Li and Xin Li

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:558

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research article

    Despite considerable efforts at developing therapeutic vaccines for cancer, clinical translation of preclinical successes has been challenging, largely due to the difficulty of inducing strong and sustained cy...

    Authors: Sean K. Maynard, Jason D. Marshall, Randall S. MacGill, Li Yu, Jennifer A. Cann, Lily I. Cheng, Michael P. McCarthy, Corinne Cayatte and Scott H. Robbins

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:540

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Case report

    Avelumab is an anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody approved for treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. It shares a similar side effec...

    Authors: Michael A. Cardis, Hong Jiang, Julius Strauss, James L. Gulley and Isaac Brownell

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:539

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research article

    Metastases account for 90% of all cancer-related deaths, becoming a therapeutic problem. Approximately 50% of all uveal melanoma (UM) patients will develop metastases, mainly in the liver. Post-mortem analyses of...

    Authors: Nyasia M. Jones, Hua Yang, Qing Zhang, Vanessa M. Morales-Tirado and Hans E. Grossniklaus

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:484

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research article

    Autoantibodies function as markers of tumorigenesis and have been proposed to enhance early detection of malignancies. We recently reported, using immunoscreening of a T7 complementary DNA (cDNA) library of br...

    Authors: Siddhesh Aras, Marie-Claire Maroun, Yeohan Song, Sudeshna Bandyopadhyay, Azadeh Stark, Zeng-Quan Yang, Michael P. Long, Lawrence I. Grossman and Félix Fernández-Madrid

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:411

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research article

    A causal association has been suggested between certain bacteria and colorectal cancer (CRC). Only a few studies have, however, investigated the presence of these bacteria directly in colon tissue with conflic...

    Authors: Caspar Bundgaard-Nielsen, Ulrik T. Baandrup, Lars P. Nielsen and Suzette Sørensen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:399

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research article

    Micafungin is a well-tolerated and effective prophylactic antifungal agent used in hematologic diseases. In this prospective trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of prophylactic micafungin during first ...

    Authors: Hyunkyung Park, Jeonghwan Youk, Dong-Yeop Shin, Junshik Hong, Inho Kim, Nam Joong Kim, Jeong-Ok Lee, Soo-Mee Bang, Sung-Soo Yoon, Wan Beom Park and Youngil Koh

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:358

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research article

    Different strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) worldwide proved to have tumouricidal activity in several types of cancer cells. However, the possible anti-cancer activity of Malaysian NDV AF2240 strain and...

    Authors: Juraimi Raihan, Umar Ahmad, Yoke Keong Yong, Zolkapli Eshak, Fauziah Othman and Aini Ideris

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:315

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Cancer 2019 19:378

  21. Content type: Research article

    The clinical and experimental evidences for complement-cancer relationships are solid, whereas an epidemiological study reporting the imbalance of complement system in patients is still lacking.

    Authors: Ping Zhao, Jun Wu, Feiteng Lu, Xuan Peng, Chenlin Liu, Nanjin Zhou and Muying Ying

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:201

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Cancer 2019 19:269

  22. Content type: Research article

    Despite the recent progress in the development of anti-cancer drugs, the treatment of metastatic tumors is usually ineffective. The systemic inflammatory response performs key roles in different stages of the ...

    Authors: O. Abu-Shawer, M. Abu-Shawer, N. Hirmas, A. Alhouri, A. Massad, B. Alsibai, H. Sultan, H. Hammo, M. Souleiman, Y. Shebli and M. Al-Hussaini

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:141

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research article

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an etiological agent of cervical cancer. Yet co-factors are believed to be involved in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered as one o...

    Authors: Chuqing Zhang, Yunjing Luo, Rugang Zhong, Priscilla T. Y. Law, Siaw Shi Boon, Zigui Chen, Chi-Hang Wong and Paul K. S. Chan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:138

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research article

    Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor-1 (IGF1R) system sustains the genesis of rhabdomyosarcoma through IGF2 autocrine overexpression. While several IGF1R-targeted strategies have been investigated to interphere...

    Authors: Carla De Giovanni, Patrizia Nanni, Lorena Landuzzi, Marianna L. Ianzano, Giordano Nicoletti, Stefania Croci, Arianna Palladini and Pier-Luigi Lollini

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:126

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Research article

    Age-related genetic changes in lymphocyte subsets are not currently well documented. BACH2 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in immune-mediated homeostasis by tightly regulating PRDM1 expr...

    Authors: Vu Luan Dang Chi, Soizic Garaud, Pushpamali De Silva, Vincent Thibaud, Basile Stamatopoulos, Mimoune Berehad, Chunyan Gu-Trantien, Mohammad Krayem, Hugues Duvillier, Jean-Nicolas Lodewyckx, Karen Willard-Gallo, Catherine Sibille and Dominique Bron

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:81

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research article

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) may arise in the intra- or extrahepatic biliary tract and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite recent advances, to date there is still no established targeted therapeutic appro...

    Authors: Mark Kriegsmann, Stephanie Roessler, Katharina Kriegsmann, Marcus Renner, Rémi Longuespée, Thomas Albrecht, Moritz Loeffler, Stephan Singer, Arianeb Mehrabi, Monika Nadja Vogel, Anita Pathil, Bruno Köhler, Christoph Springfeld, Christian Rupp, Karl Heinz Weiss and Benjamin Goeppert

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:72

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research article

    Breast cancer is currently the most common neoplasm diagnosed in women globally. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may play a key role in invasiveness of ...

    Authors: Niloofar Khodabandehlou, Shayan Mostafaei, Ashkan Etemadi, Amir Ghasemi, Mehrdad Payandeh, Shima Hadifar, Amir Hossein Norooznezhad, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad and Mohsen Moghoofei

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:61

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research article

    Cervical cancer patients with stage IVB, persistent, or recurrent disease after complete primary treatment are usually treated with systemic chemotherapy. Circulating blood components have been a target of stu...

    Authors: Pornprom Ittiamornlert and Irene Ruengkhachorn

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:51

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research article

    Although, outer membrane protein OipA of Helicobacter pylori has been associated with gastric mucosal damage and gastroduodenal diseases, studies evaluating gastric cancer patients are scarce. We investigated whe...

    Authors: Lúcia Libanez Bessa Campelo Braga, Maria Helane Rocha Batista, Orleâncio Gomes Ripardo de Azevedo, Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa, Adriana Dias Gomes, Gifone Aguiar Rocha and Dulciene Maria Magalhães Queiroz

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:48

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research article

    Use of an implant is one of the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after malignant bone tumor resection. We developed a new technique of coating titanium implant surfaces with iodine to prevent inf...

    Authors: Shinji Miwa, Toshiharu Shirai, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Kaoru Tada, Yoshitomo Kajino, Takashi Higuchi, Kensaku Abe, Hisaki Aiba, Yuta Taniguchi and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2019 19:33

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research article

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with several types of malignancies. EBV is normally present in the latent state in the peripheral blood B cell compartment. The EBV latent-to-lytic switch is ...

    Authors: Pengfei Cao, Meili Zhang, Lujuan Wang, Buqing Sai, Jiuqi Tang, Zhaohui Luo, Cijun Shuai, Liyang Zhang, Zheng Li, Yanjin Wang, Guiyuan Li and Juanjuan Xiang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:1293

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Cancer 2019 19:189

  32. Content type: Research article

    Salivary gland cancers are not sensitive to conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy regimens. Therefore, the development of a new treatment strategy is of critical importance for improving the prognosis. We ...

    Authors: Yuji Makita, Naoki Kunii, Daiju Sakurai, Fumie Ihara, Shinichiro Motohashi, Akane Suzuki, Toshinori Nakayama and Yoshitaka Okamoto

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:1254

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research article

    COPD patients are at increased risk of developing non-small cell lung carcinoma that has a worse prognosis. Oxidative stress contributes to carcinogenesis and is increased in COPD patients due to mitochondrial...

    Authors: F. Ng Kee Kwong, A. G. Nicholson, S. Pavlidis, I. M. Adcock and K. F. Chung

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:1238

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research article

    Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is characterized by a high background of inflammatory cells which play an important role for the pathogenesis of the disease. T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) is a...

    Authors: Wenchao Li, Niclas C. Blessin, Ronald Simon, Martina Kluth, Kristine Fischer, Claudia Hube-Magg, Georgia Makrypidi-Fraune, Björn Wellge, Tim Mandelkow, Nicolaus F. Debatin, Laura Pott, Doris Höflmayer, Maximilian Lennartz, Guido Sauter, Jakob R. Izbicki, Sarah Minner…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:1209

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Study protocol

    Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Donor T-cells cause inflammation and tissue damage in GvHD target organs such...

    Authors: Nikolas von Bubnoff, Gabriele Ihorst, Olga Grishina, Nadine Röthling, Hartmut Bertz, Justus Duyster, Jürgen Finke and Robert Zeiser

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:1132

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Case report

    Intravascular lymphoma is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma mostly of B-cell lineage. A few cases of intravascular lymphoma have been found to be of NK/T-cell origin, mainly affecting the skin and central ne...

    Authors: Magda Zanelli, Maria Cecilia Mengoli, Rachele Del Sordo, Angelo Cagini, Loredana De Marco, Edoardo Simonetti, Giovanni Martino, Maurizio Zizzo and Stefano Ascani

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:1115

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Review

    Recent breakthroughs in targeted therapy and immunotherapy have revolutionized the treatment of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and worldwide. Here we provide an ov...

    Authors: Xingxiang Pu, Lin Wu, Dan Su, Weimin Mao and Bingliang Fang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:1082

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research article

    Indirect evidence suggesting the immunosensitivity/immunogenicity of neuroblastoma is accumulating. The aims of this study were to investigate the immune landscape of neuroblastoma and to evaluate the in vivo ...

    Authors: Chiara Camisaschi, Salvatore Lorenzo Renne, Valeria Beretta, Francesca Rini, Rosalin Dolores Spagnuolo, Alessandra Tuccitto, Marta Giorgia Podda, Giorgio Parmiani, Licia Rivoltini, Paola Collini, Chiara Castelli and Roberto Luksch

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:983

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research article

    Carcinogenesis and tumor growth are associated with chronic inflammation and the host immune system. Here, we investigated the clinical significance and relationship between tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL...

    Authors: Kwan Ho Lee, Eun Young Kim, Ji Sup Yun, Yong Lai Park, Sung-Im Do, Seoung Wan Chae and Chan Heun Park

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:938

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research article

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells immunotherapy is rapidly developed in treating cancers, especially relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies.

    Authors: Hui Zhou, Yuling Luo, Sha Zhu, Xi Wang, Yunuo Zhao, Xuejin Ou, Tao Zhang and Xuelei Ma

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:929

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research article

    The hypercoagulable state associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA) results in increased risk of venous thromboembolism, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Recently, neutrophil extracellular...

    Authors: Brian A. Boone, Pranav Murthy, Jennifer Miller-Ocuin, W. Reed Doerfler, Jarrod T. Ellis, Xiaoyan Liang, Mark A. Ross, Callen T. Wallace, Jason L. Sperry, Michael T. Lotze, Matthew D. Neal and Herbert J. Zeh III

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:678

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research article

    RUNX1 overlapping RNA (RUNXOR) is a long non-coding RNA that has been indicated as a key regulator in the development of myeloid cells by targeting runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Myeloid-derived ...

    Authors: Xinyu Tian, Jie Ma, Ting Wang, Jie Tian, Yu Zheng, Rongrong Peng, Yungang Wang, Yue Zhang, Lingxiang Mao, Huaxi Xu and Shengjun Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:660

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are standard treatments for non-small cell lung cancer. Unique cases with paradoxical acceleration of the disease after immunotherapy have been reported. These have been described ...

    Authors: Taro Shinozaki, Eri Iwami, Shinnosuke Ikemura, Tatsu Matsuzaki, Takahiro Nakajima, Kazuhiko Hashimoto and Takeshi Terashima

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:620

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research article

    Prognosis of pancreatic cancer is poor with a 5-year survival rate of only 7%. Although several new chemotherapy treatments have shown promising results, all patients will eventually progress, and we need to d...

    Authors: Yoshiki Hirooka, Hideki Kasuya, Takuya Ishikawa, Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Itzel B. Villalobos, Yoshinori Naoe, Toru Ichinose, Nobuto Koyama, Maki Tanaka, Yasuhiro Kodera and Hidemi Goto

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:596

    Published on:

  45. Content type: Research article

    All women are potentially at risk of developing cervical cancer at some point in their life, yet it is avoidable cause of death among women in Sub- Saharan Africa with a world incidence of 530,000 every year. ...

    Authors: Hillary Mabeya, Sonia Menon, Steven Weyers, Violet Naanyu, Emily Mwaliko, Elijah Kirop, Omenge Orango, Heleen Vermandere and Davy Vanden Broeck

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:557

    Published on:

  46. Content type: Debate

    Tumors develop multiple mechanisms of immune evasion as they progress, with some cancer types being inherently better at ‘hiding’ than others. With an increased understanding of tumor immune surveillance, immu...

    Authors: Joshua P. Bates, Roshanak Derakhshandeh, Laundette Jones and Tonya J. Webb

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2018 18:556

    Published on: