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Biomarkers

This section aims to consider publications which bridge laboratory basic science and applied clinical research. The section will publish studies of diagnostic and prognostic markers which may ultimately be applicable in a clinical setting. 

Submissions need to be REMARK compliant as established in NCI-EORTC's "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies" (J Clin Oncol 23:9067, 2005) and "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): An Abridged Explanation and Elaboration" (J Natl Cancer Inst . 2018 Aug 1;110(8):803-811.). 

They should report biomarkers that have a clear biologic relevance to a particular tumor type and be validated in at least one independent validation cohort and with biological validation in vitro or in vivo. Manuscripts consisting solely of bioinformatics, computational analysis, or predictions of public databases which are not accompanied by validation will not be considered at BMC Cancer.

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  1. Although many studies have identified several inflammation-based and/or nutritional markers with prognostic value for patients with various types of cancer, the optimal markers and cut-off values for these mar...

    Authors: Takahiro Toyokawa, Kazuya Muguruma, Mami Yoshii, Tatsuro Tamura, Katsunobu Sakurai, Naoshi Kubo, Hiroaki Tanaka, Shigeru Lee, Masakazu Yashiro and Masaichi Ohira

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:517

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Invasion is often found during postoperative pathological examination of cases diagnosed as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by histological examinations such as core needle biopsy (CNB) or vacuum-assisted biop...

    Authors: Koji Takada, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Yuka Asano, Wataru Goto, Tamami Morisaki, Katsuyuki Takahashi, Hisakazu Fujita, Tsutomu Takashima, Shuhei Tomita, Kosei Hirakawa and Masaichi Ohira

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:513

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Recent studies have extensively investigated the roles of miR-106 in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the associations and molecular mechanism underlying the roles of miR-106 in CRC remain unclear. We aimed t...

    Authors: Qiliang Peng, Yi Shen, Peifeng Zhao, Ming Cheng, Yaqun Zhu and Bo Xu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:506

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Limited studies examine the immune landscape in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma (EAC). We aim to identify novel associations, which may inform immunotherapy treatment stratification.

    Authors: Matthew P. Humphries, Stephanie G. Craig, Rafal Kacprzyk, Natalie C. Fisher, Victoria Bingham, Stephen McQuaid, Graeme I. Murray, Damian McManus, Richard C. Turkington, Jacqueline James and Manuel Salto-Tellez

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:500

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Bone metastasis (BM) is one of the common sites of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the prognosis of BM patients is worse than patients without it. Our study aimed to identify predictors and prognostic fact...

    Authors: Chuan Hu, Jiaxin Yang, Zhangheng Huang, Chuan Liu, Yijun Lin, Yuexin Tong, Zhiyi Fan, Bo Chen, Cailin Wang and Cheng-Liang Zhao

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:494

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Prostate MRI has become a corner stone in diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC). Diffusion weighted imaging and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can be used to reflect tumor microstructure. The present ana...

    Authors: Hans-Jonas Meyer, Andreas Wienke and Alexey Surov

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:482

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) copy number alterations and unbalanced gene recombination events have been reported to occur in breast cancer. Importantly, LRIG1 loss was recently s...

    Authors: Mahmood Faraz, Andreas Tellström, Christina Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Kjell Grankvist, Lukasz Huminiecki, Björn Tavelin, Roger Henriksson, Håkan Hedman and Ingrid Ljuslinder

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:459

    Content type: Research article

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  8. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer pathologic complete response (pCR) indicates a favorable prognosis. Among non-selected patients, pCR is, however, achieved in only 10–30%. Early evaluation of tu...

    Authors: Bernhard Tribukait

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:440

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Prostate cancer (PC) can display very heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from indolent asymptomatic to aggressive lethal forms. Understanding how these PC subtypes vary in their striving for energy and anabolic ...

    Authors: Ilona Dudka, Elin Thysell, Kristina Lundquist, Henrik Antti, Diego Iglesias-Gato, Amilcar Flores-Morales, Anders Bergh, Pernilla Wikström and Gerhard Gröbner

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:437

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic role of hormone receptor (HR) on inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) to elucidate its aggressive biological behavior.

    Authors: Toshiaki Iwase, Kenichi Harano, Hiroko Masuda, Kumiko Kida, Kenneth R. Hess, Ying Wang, Luc Dirix, Steven J. Van Laere, Anthony Lucci, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Wendy A. Woodward, Rachel M. Layman, François Bertucci and Naoto T. Ueno

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:430

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is considered an important driver of tumor development and progression by its histone modifying capabilities. Inhibition of EZH2 activity is thought to be a potent treatment ...

    Authors: Chidimma Agatha Akpa, Karsten Kleo, Elisabeth Oker, Nancy Tomaszewski, Clemens Messerschmidt, Cristina López, Rabea Wagener, Kathrin Oehl-Huber, Katja Dettmer, Anne Schoeler, Dido Lenze, Peter J. Oefner, Dieter Beule, Reiner Siebert, David Capper, Lora Dimitrova…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:427

    Content type: Research article

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  12. PPFIA1 is an important regulator of cell migration and invasion, regulating focal adhesion signalling and disassembly. PPFIA1 is frequently amplified in breast cancer, and recent functional studies indicate th...

    Authors: Lutfi H. Alfarsi, Rokaya El Ansari, Madeleine L. Craze, Brendah K. Masisi, Ian O. Ellis, Emad A. Rakha and Andrew R. Green

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:425

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The CSC (cancer stem cell) markers often indicate poor prognosis and more cell invasion or migration of cancer patients. Podoplanin was assumed as a candidate CSC marker and predict poor prognosis among squamo...

    Authors: Liya Hu, Peng Zhang, Qi Mei, Wei Sun, Lei Zhou and Tiejun Yin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:424

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin has been the standard of care in first-line chemotherapy for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) since the trial ABC-02 was published in 2010. We aimed to investigat...

    Authors: Chiao-En Wu, Wen-Chi Chou, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, John Wen-Cheng Chang, Cheng-Yu Lin, Chun-Nan Yeh and Jen-Shi Chen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:422

    Content type: Research article

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  15. It is generally accepted that microRNA-20a (miR-20a) is aberrantly expressed in gastrointestinal cancer (GIC), and may be associated with the prognosis of GIC patients. Nevertheless, the clinical prognostic va...

    Authors: Qiliang Peng, Peifeng Zhao, Yi Shen, Ming Cheng, Yongyou Wu and Yaqun Zhu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:420

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Anaemia is highly prevalent in gastric cancer (GC) patients. The role of initial haemoglobin levels in predicting the prognosis of GC patients treated by chemotherapy has not been well determined. Our present ...

    Authors: Wen-Huan Li, Ji-Yu Zhang, Wen-Hui Liu and Xian-Xian Chen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:414

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Over the past years, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) revolutionized treatment response. 1st-generation (reversible) EGFR TKI and later the 2nd –generation irreversible EGFR TKI Afatinib were aimed to imp...

    Authors: Svenja Wagener-Ryczek, Carina Heydt, Juliane Süptitz, Sebastian Michels, Markus Falk, Christina Alidousty, Jana Fassunke, Michaela Angelika Ihle, Markus Tiemann, Lukas Heukamp, Jürgen Wolf, Reinhard Büttner and Sabine Merkelbach-Bruse

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:408

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Thyroid Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC) is a rare disease with high risk of invasion and metastasis and poor prognosis. The clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of HCC are still controversial, and cl...

    Authors: Xingtong Zhou, Zhibo Zheng, Chuyan Chen, Bangbo Zhao, Hongtao Cao, Tianhao Li, Xudong Liu, Weibin Wang and Yongning Li

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:407

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Metastatic prostate cancer (PC) is highly lethal. The ability to identify primary tumors capable of dissemination is an unmet need in the quest to understand lethal biology and improve patient outcomes. Previo...

    Authors: Eric T. Miller, Sungyong You, Radu M. Cadaneanu, Minhyung Kim, Junhee Yoon, Sandy T. Liu, Xinmin Li, Lorna Kwan, Jennelle Hodge, Michael J. Quist, Catherine S. Grasso, Michael S. Lewis, Beatrice S. Knudsen, Michael R. Freeman and Isla P. Garraway

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:398

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide and in China. We know miRNAs influence gene expression in tumorigenesis, but it is unclear how miRNAs affect gene expressi...

    Authors: Howard Yang, Hua Su, Nan Hu, Chaoyu Wang, Lemin Wang, Carol Giffen, Alisa M. Goldstein, Maxwell P. Lee and Philip R. Taylor

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:388

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Chronic inflammation is considered as a hallmark of gastric cancer (GC) and plays a critical role in GC progression and metastasis. This study aimed to explore the prognostic values of preoperative fibrinogen-...

    Authors: Shuli Tang, Lin Lin, Jianan Cheng, Juan Zhao, Qijia Xuan, Jiayue Shao, Yang Zhou and Yanqiao Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:382

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) is one of most aggressive type of cancers worldwide. Serglycin (SRGN) is an intracellular proteoglycan that playing an important role in various tumors. However, its effect on im...

    Authors: Xiaofang Wang, Hui Xiong, Daning Liang, Zhenzhen Chen, Xiqing Li and Kun Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:378

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The BRAFV600E gene encodes for the mutant BRAFV600E protein, which triggers downstream oncogenic signaling in thyroid cancer. Since most currently available methods have focused on detecting BRAFV600E mutations i...

    Authors: Tien Viet Tran, Kien Xuan Dang, Quynh Huong Pham, Ung Dinh Nguyen, Nhung Thi Trang Trinh, Luong Van Hoang, Son Anh Ho, Ba Van Nguyen, Duc Trong Nguyen, Dung Tuan Trinh, Dung Ngoc Tran, Arto Orpana, Ulf-Håkan Stenman, Jakob Stenman and Tho Huu Ho

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:368

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Correct identification of the EGFR c.2369C>T p.(Thr790Met) variant is key to decide on a targeted therapeutic strategy for patients with acquired EGFR TKI resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. The aim of this...

    Authors: Cleo Keppens, Elisabeth M. C. Dequeker, Etienne Rouleau, Nils ’t Hart, Lukas Bubendorf, Kelly Dufraing, Céline Garrec, Paul Guéguen, Aude Lamy, Antonio Marchetti, Patrick Pauwels, Ales Ryska, Véronique Tack, Luigi Tornillo, Kaat Van Casteren, Jan H. von der Thüsen…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:366

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI), an immunity and nutrition based prognostic score, was correlated with clinical outcomes in different tumors. However, the prognostic significance of PNI has not been inv...

    Authors: Bin Li, Zheng Lu, Shengzheng Wang, Junqing Hou, Gang Xia, Heng Li, Bo Yin and Wei Lu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:361

    Content type: Research article

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  26. The objective of this study was to investigate real-world EGFR mutation testing in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon progression on first−/second-generation epidermal growth fact...

    Authors: Anne C. Chiang, Ancilla W. Fernandes, Melissa Pavilack, Jennifer W. Wu, François Laliberté, Mei Sheng Duh, Nabil Chehab and Janakiraman Subramanian

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:356

    Content type: Research article

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  27. ARID1A has been described as a tumor suppressor gene, participating in chromatin re-modeling, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition and many other cellular and molecular processes. It has been cited as a contribut...

    Authors: Mehran Erfani, Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Maral Mokhtari, Mozhdeh Zamani, Kamran Tahmasebi, Mahvash Alizadeh Naini, Alireza Taghavi, John M. Carethers, Minoru Koi, Hassan Brim, Pooneh Mokarram and Hassan Ashktorab

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:350

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Detection of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been commonly used to predict the efficacy of treatment with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. However, there is limited literature re...

    Authors: Yinying Zou, Liming Xu, Qiusu Tang, Qihan You, Xiaoling Wang, Wei Ding, Jing Zhao and Guoping Ren

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:344

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) are commonly treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib, which blocks signalling from vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) - and platelet-derive...

    Authors: Marjut Niinivirta, Maria Georganaki, Gunilla Enblad, Cecilia Lindskog, Anna Dimberg and Gustav J. Ullenhag

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:339

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Breast cancer treatment is tailored to the specific cancer subtype. Often, systemic treatment is given prior to surgery. Chemotherapy induces significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death a...

    Authors: Annat Raiter, Julia Lipovetzki, Ido Lubin and Rinat Yerushalmi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:333

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is emerging as a therapeutic and prognostic biomarker in various cancer types, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Here, we investi...

    Authors: Eun Kyung Kim, Yoon Ah Cho, Yoon Woo Koh, Hyang Ae Shin, Byoung Chul Cho and Sun Och Yoon

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:348

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Sodium channels located in the dorsal root ganglion, particularly Nav1.7 and Nav1.8, encoded by SCN9A and SCN10A, respectively, act as molecular gatekeepers for pain detection. Our aim was to determine the associ...

    Authors: Yuko Tanabe, Seiji Shiraishi, Kenji Hashimoto, Kazutaka Ikeda, Daisuke Nishizawa, Junko Hasegawa, Akihiko Shimomura, Yukinori Ozaki, Nobuko Tamura, Mayu Yunokawa, Kan Yonemori, Toshimi Takano, Hidetaka Kawabata, Kenji Tamura, Yasuhiro Fujiwara and Chikako Shimizu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:325

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is one of the most lethal cancers. It is particularly important to accurately predict prognosis and to provide individualized treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that genet...

    Authors: Xueying Li, Weiming Yu, Chao Liang, Yuan Xu, Miaozun Zhang, Xiaoyun Ding and Xianlei Cai

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:305

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Although docetaxel-based chemohormonal therapy (CHT) is one of the standard treatments for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), pertinent biomarkers and precise mechanisms involved in the resistance fo...

    Authors: Yoshinori Matsuda, Shintaro Narita, Taketoshi Nara, Huang Mingguo, Hiromi Sato, Atsushi Koizumi, Sohei Kanda, Kazuyuki Numakura, Mitsuru Saito, Takamitsu Inoue, Yuko Hiroshima, Hiroshi Nanjo, Shigeru Satoh, Norihiko Tsuchiya and Tomonori Habuchi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:302

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Polymorphisms in MTHFR gene influence risk and overall survival of patients with brain tumor. Global genomic DNA (gDNA) methylation profile from tumor tissues is replicated in peripheral leukocytes. This study ai...

    Authors: Giselle M. Faria, Igor D. P. Soares, Marcela D’Alincourt Salazar, Marcia R. Amorim, Bruno L. Pessoa, Clovis O. da Fonseca and Thereza Quirico-Santos

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:294

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in play an important role in the initiation, relapse, and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and in the development of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in AML. Studies rega...

    Authors: Sook-Kyoung Heo, Eui-Kyu Noh, Lan Jeong Ju, Jun Young Sung, Yoo Kyung Jeong, Jaekyung Cheon, Su Jin Koh, Young Joo Min, Yunsuk Choi and Jae-Cheol Jo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:285

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The prevalence of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) remains unclear. In the present st...

    Authors: Motomasa Furuse, Hiroko Kuwabara, Naokado Ikeda, Yasuhiko Hattori, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Naoki Kagawa, Kenichiro Kikuta, Sho Tamai, Mitsutoshi Nakada, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Yoshinobu Hirose and Shin-Ichi Miyatake

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:277

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in exons 18–21 is recommended in all patients with advanced Non-small-cell lung carcinoma due to the demonstrated efficiency of the standard therapy ...

    Authors: Mercedes Delgado-García, Birgit Weynand, Lourdes Gómez-Izquierdo, María José Hernández, Ángela María Blanco, Mar Varela, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Ernest Nadal, Bélgica Márquez-Lobo, Ana Alarcão, Enrique de Álava and Michele Biscuola

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:275

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a markedly heterogeneous disease in many aspects, including the tumour microenvironment. Our previous study showed the importance of the tumour microenvironment in cc...

    Authors: Ju-Yoon Yoon, Craig Gedye, Joshua Paterson and Laurie Ailles

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:272

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Lymphovascular invasion (LOI), a key pathological feature of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is predictive of poor survival; however, the associated clinical characteristics and underlying molec...

    Authors: Jian Zhang, Huaming Lin, Huali Jiang, Hualong Jiang, Tao Xie, Baiyao Wang, Xiaoting Huang, Jie Lin, Anan Xu, Rong Li, Jiexia Zhang and Yawei Yuan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:266

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) has been shown to contribute to DNA repair and cell cycle promotion; however, its roles in cancer initiation and progression remain largely unknown. This stud...

    Authors: Nuo Xu, Fanglei Liu, Shengdi Wu, Maosong Ye, Haiyan Ge, Meiling Zhang, Yuanlin Song, Lin Tong, Jian Zhou and Chunxue Bai

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:262

    Content type: Research article

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  42. No study has evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma albumin (PA) levels longitudinally in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).

    Authors: Kim Oren Gradel, Pedro Póvoa, Olav Sivertsen Garvik, Pernille Just Vinholt, Stig Lønberg Nielsen, Thøger Gorm Jensen, Ming Chen, Ram Benny Dessau, Jens Kjølseth Møller, John Eugenio Coia, Pernille Sanberg Ljungdalh, Annmarie Touborg Lassen and Henrik Frederiksen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:249

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) is a relatively rare disease in the west but more common in East Asia and areas of the Middle East like Saudi Arabia. Despite the advances in radiation therap...

    Authors: Nasser Al-Rajhi, Hussein Soudy, Shoaib A. Ahmed, Tusneem Elhassan, Shamayel F. Mohammed, Hatim A. Khoja and Hazem Ghebeh

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:240

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Many studies have reported the prognostic significance of the bone scan index (BSI) for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC); however, these reports are controversial. This study investigate...

    Authors: Hualin Song, Song Jin, Peng Xiang, Shuai Hu and Jie Jin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:238

    Content type: Research article

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