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Biomarkers

This section aims to consider publications which bridge laboratory basic science and applied clinical research. The section will publish studies of diagnostic and prognostic markers which may ultimately be applicable in a clinical setting. 

Submissions need to be REMARK compliant as established in NCI-EORTC's "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies" (J Clin Oncol 23:9067, 2005) and "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): An Abridged Explanation and Elaboration" (J Natl Cancer Inst . 2018 Aug 1;110(8):803-811.). 

They should report biomarkers that have a clear biologic relevance to a particular tumor type and be validated in at least one independent validation cohort and with biological validation in vitro or in vivo. Manuscripts consisting solely of bioinformatics, computational analysis, or predictions of public databases which are not accompanied by validation will not be considered at BMC Cancer.

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  1. BRAF-activated noncoding RNA (BANCR) is aberrantly expressed in various tumor tissues and has been confirmed to function as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in many types of cancers. Considering the conflicting ...

    Authors: Shixu Fang, Zhou Liu, Qiang Guo, Cheng Chen, Xixian Ke and Gang Xu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:870

    Content type: Research article

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  2. An increasing number of studies have described the aberrant expression of homeobox (HOX) proteins in gastric cancer (GC), which is critically associated with the prognosis and clinicopathological characteristi...

    Authors: Xiao Jin, Lu Dai, Yilan Ma, Jiayan Wang, Haihao Yan, Ye Jin, Xiaojuan Zhu and Zheng Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:866

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Melanoma has the highest mortality rate of all skin tumors, and metastases are the major cause of death from it. The molecular mechanism leading to melanoma metastasis is currently unclear.

    Authors: Wenxing Su, Yi Guan, Biao Huang, Juanjuan Wang, Yuqian Wei, Ying Zhao, Qingqing Jiao, Jiang Ji, Daojiang Yu and Longjiang Xu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:863

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinomas are heterogeneous, comprising four molecularly distinct subtypes, namely EBV-positive, microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability (CIN) an...

    Authors: Ju-Yoon Yoon, Christine Brezden-Masley and Catherine J. Streutker

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:860

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Cell-in-cell structures (caused by cell cannibalistic activity) have been related to prognosis of many cancers. This is the first multi-institutional study to assess the prognostic impact of cell-in-cell struc...

    Authors: Alhadi Almangush, Antti A. Mäkitie, Jaana Hagström, Caj Haglund, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Pentti Nieminen, Ricardo D. Coletta, Tuula Salo and Ilmo Leivo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:843

    Content type: Research article

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  6. To investigate the differences in plasma metabolomic characteristics between pathological complete response (pCR) and non-pCR patients and identify biomarker candidates for predicting the response to neoadjuva...

    Authors: Yaowen Zhang, Jianpo Wang, Ningtao Dai, Peng Han, Jian Li, Jiangman Zhao, Weilan Yuan, Jiahuan Zhou and Fuyou Zhou

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:835

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Role of tumor markers in gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) is not well established. We evaluated the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA19–9) and carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) in patients with GBC.

    Authors: Ashish Sachan, Sundeep Singh Saluja, Phani Kumar Nekarakanti, Nimisha, Bhawna Mahajan, Hirdaya H. Nag and Pramod K. Mishra

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:826

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) causes substantial symptomatic burden in advanced malignancy. Although pleural fluid cytology is a commonly accepted gold standard of diagnosis, its low diagnostic yield is a c...

    Authors: Hayoung Choi, Yousang Ko and Chang Youl Lee

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:825

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Cell-free DNA’s (cfDNA) use as a biomarker in cancer is challenging due to genetic heterogeneity of malignancies and rarity of tumor-derived molecules. Here we describe and demonstrate a novel machine-learning...

    Authors: Clinton L. Cario, Emmalyn Chen, Lancelote Leong, Nima C. Emami, Karen Lopez, Imelda Tenggara, Jeffry P. Simko, Terence W. Friedlander, Patricia S. Li, Pamela L. Paris, Peter R. Carroll and John S. Witte

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:820

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) is overexpressed in many squamous cell carcinomas and promotes tumor development and invasion. The association between TROP2 expression and occurrence and development...

    Authors: Baoping Zhang, Shuting Gao, Ruiping Li, Yiting Li, Rui Cao, Jingyang Cheng, Yumeng Guo, Errui Wang, Ying Huang and Kailiang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:815

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in malignant tumors. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of the TME and related genes in osteosarcoma patients.

    Authors: Chuan Hu, Chuan Liu, Shaoqi Tian, Yuanhe Wang, Rui Shen, Huili Rao, Jianyi Li, Xu Yang, Bo Chen and Lin Ye

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:814

    Content type: Research article

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  12. To improve the postoperative prognosis of patients with lung cancer, predicting the recurrence high-risk patients is needed for the efficient application of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, predicting lung canc...

    Authors: Yusuke Takanashi, Kazuhito Funai, Shumpei Sato, Akikazu Kawase, Hong Tao, Yutaka Takahashi, Haruhiko Sugimura, Mitsutoshi Setou, Tomoaki Kahyo and Norihiko Shiiya

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:800

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Orthodenticle homeobox 1 (OTX1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in various human cancers. However, the function of OTX1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is largely unknown. We...

    Authors: Xiu-Ping Tu, Hao Li, Liang-Si Chen, Xiao-Ning Luo, Zhong-Ming Lu, Si-Yi Zhang and Shao-Hua Chen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:794

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing all over the world. Some studies have suggested that the change of adipokines expression can induce thyroid carcinoma. However, other studies have come to the o...

    Authors: Junyu Zhao, Jing Wen, Shengnan Wang, Jinming Yao, Lin Liao and Jianjun Dong

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:788

    Content type: Research article

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  15. SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes are considered tumor suppressors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to frequent epigenetic repression. Consistent with this notion, mice lacking SOCS1 or SOCS3 show increased susceptibili...

    Authors: Md Gulam Musawwir Khan, Amit Ghosh, Bhavesh Variya, Madanraj Appiya Santharam, Awais Ullah Ihsan, Sheela Ramanathan and Subburaj Ilangumaran

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:774

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Immunosenescence biomarkers and peripheral blood parameters are evaluated separately as possible predictive markers of immunotherapy. Here, we illustrate the use of a causal inference model to identify predict...

    Authors: Patricia Lorenzo-Luaces, Lizet Sanchez, Danay Saavedra, Tania Crombet, Wim Van der Elst, Ariel Alonso, Geert Molenberghs and Agustin Lage

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:772

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Autophagy is a programmed cell degradation mechanism that has been associated with several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including malignancy. Improper induction of autophagy has been propose...

    Authors: Xingxing Huo, Jian Qi, Kaiquan Huang, Su Bu, Wei Yao, Ying Chen and Jinfu Nie

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:771

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR1) is involved in vascular development, a key process in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to evaluate its roles in tumor development and prognosis.

    Authors: Limei Zhong, Linling Xie, Zhiyong Yang, Lijuan Li, Shaohua Song, Donglin Cao and Yufeng Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:766

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Anti-Androgen Receptor (AR) therapy holds promise for a subset of AR expressing triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. However, current AR assays are suboptimal in detecting the dynamic range of AR exp...

    Authors: Sindhu Govindan, Mallikarjuna Siraganahalli Eswaraiah, Chetana Basavaraj, Manjula Adinarayan, Satish Sankaran and Manjiri Bakre

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:745

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Cancer cells induce the infiltration of various immune cells that are located or distributed in different sites and play multiple roles, which have recently been proposed to predict clinical outcomes. We there...

    Authors: Jie Wang, Shu Tian, Ji Sun, Jiahao Zhang, Lan Lin and Chunyan Hu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:731

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Better biomarkers for assessing risk of relapse in stage I testicular germ cell tumor patients are needed, to complement classical histopathological variables. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of previo...

    Authors: João Lobo, Ad J. M. Gillis, Annette van den Berg and Leendert H. J. Looijenga

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:728

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The value of chemotherapy in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) remains controversial. Several expert teams consider that chemotherapy provides a survival advantage and should be proposed in high-risk (HR) patients. Ho...

    Authors: Thomas Filleron, Sophie Le Guellec, Christine Chevreau, Bastien Cabarrou, Tom Lesluyes, Sabrina Lodin, Angélique Massoubre, Muriel Mounier, Muriel Poublanc, Frédéric Chibon and Thibaud Valentin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:716

    Content type: Study protocol

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  23. A number of studies have reported hyperprogressive disease (HPD) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI). This study aimed to summarize the incidence and su...

    Authors: Yan Chen, Junjie Hu, Fangfang Bu, Haiping Zhang, Ke Fei and Peng Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:707

    Content type: Research article

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  24. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is suspected to be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis and has been associated with worse survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that the alleg...

    Authors: Steffen M. Heckl, Marie Pellinghaus, Hans-Michael Behrens, Sandra Krüger, Stefan Schreiber and Christoph Röcken

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:704

    Content type: Research article

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  25. In this study, we examined the differential associations of various proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines with depression severity from the development of breast cancer to subsequent chemotherapy tre...

    Authors: Bor-Show Tzang, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Ching-Chuan Hsieh, Wen-Ke Wang, Yi-Ping Weng, Hsing-Ying Ho, Ya-Ting Hsu, Han-Pin Hsaio, Jun-Cheng Weng and Yi-Lung Chen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:686

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Long intergenic non-coding RNA 00511 (LINC00511) is highly expressed in diverse cancers and has a correlation with poor clinical outcomes for cancer patients. In view of contradictory data among published data...

    Authors: Yannick Luther Agbana, Manzama-Esso Abi, Yueli Ni, Guohang Xiong, Jing Chen, Fang Yun, Zihan Yi, Qiao Zhang, Zhe Yang, Yingmin Kuang and Yuechun Zhu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:682

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Breast cancer clinical management requires the assessment of hormone receptors (estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and cellular proliferation index K...

    Authors: Laura Rey-Vargas, Juan Carlos Mejía-Henao, María Carolina Sanabria-Salas and Silvia J. Serrano-Gomez

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:675

    Content type: Research article

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  28. As one of the most common cancers with high mortality in the world, we are still facing a huge challenge in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer. With the rapid development of high throughput technolog...

    Authors: Fuyan Hu, Qing Wang, Zhiyuan Yang, Zeng Zhang and Xiaoping Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:668

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Recent studies have highlighted the important role of long non-coding RNA SNHG16 in various human cancers. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of SNHG16 expression on clinicopathologic...

    Authors: Ruonan Jiao, Wei Jiang, Xin Wei, Mengpei Zhang, Si Zhao and Guangming Huang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:662

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Expression of matrix metalloproteases 2, 9 and 14 (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14), tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease 1 and 2 (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is involved in tumor in...

    Authors: Jordana Maria Azevedo Martins, Silvia Helena Rabelo-Santos, Maria Cristina do Amaral Westin and Luiz Carlos Zeferino

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:660

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Sentinel lymph node is the first stop of lymphatic spreading of cancer with known primary. The lymph node metastasis pattern of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is unclear and has been presumed to follow the sa...

    Authors: Yilin Shao, Xin Liu, Silong Hu, Yingjian Zhang, Wentao Li, Xiaoyan Zhou, Qifeng Wang, Yifeng Hou, Yong Chen, Yanli Wang, Yaohui Wang, Zhiguo Luo and Xichun Hu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:639

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Several studies have investigated the associations between the podocalyxin-like protein (PODXL) expression quantity or locations and cancers survival, but the results were far from conclusive. Therefore, we pr...

    Authors: Siying He, Wenjie Du, Menglan Li, Ming Yan and Fang Zheng

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:620

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Cancer testis (CT) antigens are promising targets for cancer immunotherapies such as cancer vaccines and genetically modified adoptive T cell therapy. In this study, we evaluated the expression of three CT ant...

    Authors: Mikiya Ishihara, Shinichi Kageyama, Yoshihiro Miyahara, Takeshi Ishikawa, Shugo Ueda, Norihito Soga, Hiroaki Naota, Katsumi Mukai, Naozumi Harada, Hiroaki Ikeda and Hiroshi Shiku

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:606

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a common malignant carcinoma of digestive system with high mortality. RAB, member RAS oncogene family like 6 (RABL6), a member of the RAS subfamily, has been reported ...

    Authors: Yanfen Feng, Shumei Yan, Yuhua Huang, Qitao Huang, Fang Wang and Yiyan Lei

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:602

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Lymph node metastasis is more likely in early-stage breast cancer with lower tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between TILs and lymph node metastasis in cT...

    Authors: Koji Takada, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Yuka Asano, Wataru Goto, Rika Kouhashi, Akimichi Yabumoto, Tamami Morisaki, Masatsune Shibutani, Tsutomu Takashima, Hisakazu Fujita, Kosei Hirakawa and Masaichi Ohira

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:598

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Previous studies have shown that branched-chain amino acid transferase 1 (BCAT1) is associated with tumour progression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Furthermore, CD133 has emerged as a novel cancer ...

    Authors: Yu Song, Bin Zhao, Yali Xu, Xinyu Ren, Yan Lin, Liangrui Zhou and Qiang Sun

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:584

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is the seventh-most prevalent tumor in the world, which is still one of the primary causes of tumor-related death. Identifying noteworthy biomarkers for EC is particularly significant...

    Authors: Yiding Li, Guiling Wu, Wanli Yang, Xiaoqian Wang, Lili Duan, Liaoran Niu, Yujie Zhang, Jinqiang Liu, Liu Hong and Daiming Fan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:581

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Skin cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and commonly classified into malignant melanoma (MM) and Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), which mainly include basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carc...

    Authors: Mohammad Ali Zolfaghari, Abbas Karimi, Elham Kalantari, Alireza Korourian, Alireza Ghanadan, Kambiz Kamyab, Nafiseh Esmaili, Amir Nader Emami Razavi and Zahra Madjd

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:567

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The prognosis is very poor for lung cancer patients with bone metastasis. Unfortunately, a suitable method has yet to become available for the early diagnosis of bone metastasis in lung cancer patients. The pr...

    Authors: Xiaoyan Teng, Lirong Wei, Liming Han, Daliu Min and Yuzhen Du

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:562

    Content type: Research article

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  40. A prognostic model combining biomarkers of metaphase-anaphase transition of the cell cycle was developed for invasive breast cancer. The prognostic value and clinical applicability of the model was evaluated i...

    Authors: Heli Repo, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Samu Kurki, Lila Kallio, Teijo Kuopio, Kati Talvinen and Pauliina Kronqvist

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:558

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Prostate cancer (PC), a common malignant tumor, is the second-leading cause of cancer death among American men. Its successful treatment greatly relies on the early diagnose. Engrailed-2 (EN2) has been confirm...

    Authors: Qi Li, Yibo Shi, Rigai Sa, Jun Hao, Jinhao Hu, Mulun Xiao, Chaoliang Wang, Liang Yan, Baoping Qiao and Guoxun Chen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:555

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Metastatic medulloblastoma (MB) portends a poor prognosis. Amongst the 4 molecular subtypes, Group 3 and Group 4 patients have a higher incidence of metastatic disease, especially involving the neuroaxis. At p...

    Authors: Sharon Y. Y. Low, Nurfahanah Bte Syed Sulaiman, Enrica E. K. Tan, Lee Ping Ng, Chik Hong Kuick, Kenneth T. E. Chang, Phua Hwee Tang, Ru Xin Wong, Wen Shen Looi, David C. Y. Low and Wan Tew Seow

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:554

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Unresectable esophageal cancer harbors high mortality despite chemoradiotherapy. Better patient selection for more personalized management may result in better treatment outcomes. We presume the ratio of maxim...

    Authors: Po-Jui Chen, Wing-Keen Yap, Yu-Chuan Chang, Chen-Kan Tseng, Yin-Kai Chao, Jason Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Ping-Ching Pai, Ching-Hsin Lee, Chan-Keng Yang, Albert Tsung-Ying Ho and Tsung-Min Hung

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:545

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Recent evidence suggests that albumin-to-Alkaline Phosphatase Ratio (AAPR) functions as a novel prognostic marker in several malignancies. However, whether it can predict the prognosis of unresectable pancreat...

    Authors: Ke Zhang, Shu Dong, Yan-Hua Jing, Hui-Feng Gao, Lian-Yu Chen, Yong-Qiang Hua, Hao Chen and Zhen Chen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:541

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Expression of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), a key regulator of T-cell function, in the tumor immune microenvironment is related to survival in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). Vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcripti...

    Authors: Gaurav K. Gupta, Tanupriya Agrawal and Monika Pilichowska

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:535

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Previous researches have reported that tripartite motif-containing 44 (TRIM44) is related to the prognosis of multiple human tumors. This study was designed to systematically assess the prognostic value of TRI...

    Authors: Guoliang Xiao, Qiuxi Yang, Ziwei Bao, Haixia Mao, Yi Zhang and Shibu Lin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:525

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Treatment options for advanced head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) are limited. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA), a transmembrane protein that is known for its use in diagnostics and targete...

    Authors: Thomas J. W. Klein Nulent, Matthijs H. Valstar, Laura A. Smit, Ludwig E. Smeele, Nicolaas P. A. Zuithoff, Bart de Keizer, Remco de Bree, Robert J. J. van Es and Stefan M. Willems

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2020 20:519

    Content type: Research article

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