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Biomarkers

This section aims to consider publications which bridge laboratory basic science and applied clinical research. The section will publish studies of diagnostic and prognostic markers which may ultimately be applicable in a clinical setting. 

Submissions need to be REMARK compliant as established in NCI-EORTC's "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies" (J Clin Oncol 23:9067, 2005) and "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): An Abridged Explanation and Elaboration" (J Natl Cancer Inst . 2018 Aug 1;110(8):803-811.). 

They should report biomarkers that have a clear biologic relevance to a particular tumor type and be validated in at least one independent validation cohort and with biological validation in vitro or in vivo. Manuscripts consisting solely of bioinformatics, computational analysis, or predictions of public databases which are not accompanied by validation will not be considered at BMC Cancer.

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  1. Identifying gene mutation signatures will enable a better understanding for the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), and provide some potential biomarkers for clinical practice. Currently, ho...

    Authors: Yan Zhuang, Hailong Wang, Da Jiang, Ying Li, Lixia Feng, Caijuan Tian, Mingyu Pu, Xiaowei Wang, Jiangyan Zhang, Yuanjing Hu and Pengfei Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:380

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Immunotherapy is a vital component in cancer treatment. However, due to the complex genetic bases of cancer, a clear prediction index for efficacy has not been established. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is one o...

    Authors: Liwei Wang, Fu Chen, Rui Liu, Lei Shi, Guosheng Zhao and Zhengjian Yan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The intimate relationship between coagulation and fibrinolysis in malignant tumors is a well-known phenomena, with the malignant phenotype enhancing coagulation and fibrinolysis. We hypothesized that soft tiss...

    Authors: Kunihiro Asanuma, Tomoki Nakamura, Tomohito Hagi, Takayuki Okamoto, Kouji Kita, Koichi Nakamura, Yumi Matsuyama, Keisuke Yoshida, Yumiko Asanuma and Akihiro Sudo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:364

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a serious health concern worldwide. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, about 15 to 30% of stage II CRC patients subjected to tumor resection with curative intent, deve...

    Authors: Sara Ribeirinho-Soares, Diana Pádua, Ana Luísa Amaral, Elvia Valentini, Daniela Azevedo, Cristiana Marques, Rita Barros, Filipa Macedo, Patrícia Mesquita and Raquel Almeida

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy supplemented by molecularly targeted therapies. There is a critical need to define biomarkers that can optimise the use of the...

    Authors: Reem D. Mahmood, Danielle Shaw, Tine Descamps, Cong Zhou, Robert D. Morgan, Saifee Mullamitha, Mark Saunders, Nerissa Mescallado, Alison Backen, Karen Morris, Ross A. Little, Susan Cheung, Yvonne Watson, James P. B. O’Connor, Alan Jackson, Geoff J. M. Parker…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:354

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is recommended as the standard treatment for refractory soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, there are comparatively few molecular determinants for predicti...

    Authors: Sang Kyum Kim, Jee Hung Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Young Han Lee, Jung Woo Han, Wooyeol Baek, Ha Young Woo, Min Kyung Jeon and Hyo Song Kim

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:336

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains high worldwide despite surgery and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment for the rapidly expanding HCC spectrum. Therefore, it is nec...

    Authors: Weike Gao, Luan Li, Xinyin Han, Siyao Liu, Chengzhen Li, Guanying Yu, Lei Zhang, Dongsheng Zhang, Caiyun Liu, Erhong Meng, Shuai Hong, Dongliang Wang, Peiming Guo and Guangjun Shi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are actively secreted by cells into body fluids and contain nucleic acids of the cells they originate from. The goal of this study was to detect circulating tumor-derived EVs (ctEV...

    Authors: Silvia R. Vitale, Jean A. Helmijr, Marjolein Gerritsen, Hicret Coban, Lisanne F. van Dessel, Nick Beije, Michelle van der Vlugt-Daane, Paolo Vigneri, Anieta M. Sieuwerts, Natasja Dits, Martin E. van Royen, Guido Jenster, Stefan Sleijfer, Martijn Lolkema, John W. M. Martens and Maurice P. H. M. Jansen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The purpose of this study was to construct a new typing model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients based on the B-cell receptor (BCR) and explore its potential molecular mechanism.

    Authors: Wenhua Jiang, Hailong Wang, Shiyong Zhou, Guoqing Zhu, Mingyou Gao, Kuo Zhao, Limeng Zhang, Xiaojing Xie, Ning Zhao, Caijuan Tian, Zhenzhen Zhang, Fang Yan, Yi Pan and Pengfei Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:297

    Content type: Research article

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  10. PCNA-associated factor, the protein encoded by the KIAA0101/PCLAF gene, is a cell-cycle regulated oncoprotein that regulates DNA synthesis, maintenance of DNA methylation, and DNA-damage bypass, through the in...

    Authors: Anchalee Tantiwetrueangdet, Ravat Panvichian, Pattana Sornmayura, Surasak Leelaudomlipi and Jill A. Macoska

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:295

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Differentiating true glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from pseudoprogression (PsP) remains a challenge with current standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objective of this study was to explore whether pa...

    Authors: Jing Xi, Bilal Hassan, Ruth G. N. Katumba, Karam Khaddour, Akshay Govindan, Jingqin Luo, Jiayi Huang and Jian L. Campian

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:285

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Mismatch repair (MMR)/microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) are independent biomarkers that complement each other for predicting immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) efficacy. Here ...

    Authors: Jian Xiao, Wenyun Li, Yan Huang, Mengli Huang, Shanshan Li, Xiaohui Zhai, Jing Zhao, Chan Gao, Wenzhuan Xie, Hao Qin, Shangli Cai, Yuezong Bai, Ping Lan and Yifeng Zou

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:282

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The objective of the study was to detect the expression of Kita-Kyushu lung cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) in gastric cancer (GC) specimens and analyse the associations between KK-LC-1 expression and clinicopathol...

    Authors: Jun Ji, Jiahui Chen, Anqiang Wang, Wei Zhang, Hongge Ju, Yang Liu and Leping Li

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:267

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths across the world. Early detection of lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce the mortality rate. However, making a definitive preope...

    Authors: Wenqun Xing, Haibo Sun, Chi Yan, Chengzhi Zhao, Dongqing Wang, Mingming Li and Jie Ma

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:263

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is a dynamic setting and changes in TILs and their subpopulations are potential candidates to influence the metastatic process. Aim of this pilot study is to describe the changes o...

    Authors: Annalisa Zeppellini, Stefania Galimberti, Biagio Eugenio Leone, Claudia Pacifico, Francesca Riva, Federica Cicchiello, Serena Capici, Claudia Maggioni, Luca Sala and Marina Elena Cazzaniga

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:260

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) represents a class of RNAs (e.g., long noncoding RNAs [lncRNAs]) with microRNA (miRNA) binding sites, which can competitively bind miRNA and inhibit its regulation of target ge...

    Authors: Jingyi Chen, Yuxuan Song, Mei Li, Yu Zhang, Tingru Lin, Jie Sun, Di Wang, Yulan Liu, Jingzhu Guo and Weidong Yu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:255

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays an important role in the energy storage and is involved in cancer progression. A growing number of evidences showed that elevated expression of DGAT1 in cancer tissu...

    Authors: Ping He, Shihuan Cheng, Feng Hu, Zhanchuan Ma and Yan Xia

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:252

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Genetic alterations have been proven to be the promising biomarkers for ICI response. However, sex biases in genetic alterations have been often ignored in the field of immunotherapy, which might specially inf...

    Authors: You Ge, Feiran Wei, Guoping Du, Gaoqiang Fei, Wei Li, Xiaoshan Li, Jinjin Chu and Pingmin Wei

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research article

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  19. There is evidence to consider that the tumor microenvironment (TME) composition associates with antitumor immune response, and may predict the outcome of various non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes. However, in the ...

    Authors: Guilherme Rossi Assis-Mendonça, André Fattori, Rafael Malagoli Rocha, Gustavo Jacob Lourenço, Márcia Torresan Delamain, Suely Nonogaki, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro de Lima, Gisele Wally Braga Colleoni, Cármino Antonio de Souza, Fernando Augusto Soares, Carmen Silvia Passos Lima and José Vassallo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Oral cancer (OC) is usually diagnosed at advanced clinical stages due to its asymptomatic nature and absence of pathognomonic signs in its early development phase. Delayed diagnosis is one of the major causes ...

    Authors: Mayara Martina Abatti Chiamulera, Caroline Biazzolo Zancan, Aline Pertile Remor, Marcos Freitas Cordeiro, Frederico Omar Gleber-Netto and Antuani Rafael Baptistella

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:205

    Content type: Research article

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  21. In recent years, emerging studies have demonstrated critical functions and potential clinical applications of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in osteosarcoma. To further validate the prognostic value of multiple ...

    Authors: Wenchao Zhang, Xiaolei Ren, Lin Qi, Chenghao Zhang, Chao Tu and Zhihong Li

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:202

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Multiple common variants identified by genome-wide association studies have shown limited evidence of the risk of breast cancer in Chinese individuals. In this study, we aimed to uncover the relationship betwe...

    Authors: Feng Zhao, Zhixiang Hao, Yanan Zhong, Yinxue Xu, Meng Guo, Bei Zhang, Xiaoxing Yin, Ying Li and Xueyan Zhou

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:194

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The growth factor progranulin has been implicated in numerous biological processes such as wound healing, inflammation and progressive tumorigenesis. Both progranulin and its receptor sortilin are known to be ...

    Authors: Karoline Berger, Sara Rhost, Svanheiður Rafnsdóttir, Éamon Hughes, Ylva Magnusson, Maria Ekholm, Olle Stål, Lisa Rydén and Göran Landberg

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:185

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Establishing diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a challenge. This study evaluated the value of dynamic interleukin (IL)-10 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) conc...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Dongmei Zou, Jingjing Yin, Li Zhang, Xiao Zhang, Wei Wang, Meifen Zhang, Daobin Zhou and Wei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:183

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Early screening and intervention therapies are crucial to improve the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with bone metastasis. We aimed to identify serum lncRNA as a prediction biomarker in H...

    Authors: Li Zhang, Hao Niu, Ping Yang, Jie Ma, Bao-Ying Yuan, Zhao-Chong Zeng and Zuo-Lin Xiang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:161

    Content type: Research article

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  26. BCL2 associated Athano-Gene 1 (BAG1) has been described to be involved in the development and progression of cancer. But the role of BAG1 in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) has remained largely unknown.

    Authors: Hongrong Wu, Minjing Liu, Yuejun He, Guozhao Meng, Wanbei Guo and Qiong Guo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:160

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive type of endometrial cancer that accounts for up to 40% of endometrial cancer deaths, creating an urgent need for prognostic biomarkers.

    Authors: Hui Chen, Lingjun Li, Ping Qin, Hanzhen Xiong, Ruichao Chen, Minfen Zhang and Qingping Jiang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:154

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Fascin is the main actin cross-linker protein that regulates adhesion dynamics and stabilizes cell protrusion, such as filopodia. In human cancer, fascin expression correlates with aggressive clinical features...

    Authors: Athanasios Tampakis, Ekaterini-Christina Tampaki, Afrodite Nonni, Ioannis D. Kostakis, Alberto Posabella, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Markus von Flüe, Evangelos Felekouras, Gregory Kouraklis and Nikolaos Nikiteas

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:153

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Cancer 2021 21:191

  29. Sarcomas is a group of heterogeneous malignant tumors originated from mesenchymal tissue and different types of sarcomas have disparate outcomes. The present study aims to identify the prognostic value of immu...

    Authors: Rui Shen, Bo Liu, Xuesen Li, Tengbo Yu, Kuishuai Xu and Jinfeng Ma

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:144

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The treatment strategies for Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are usually based on the risk stratification system. However, few risk signatures which integrate the revised international prognostic scoring syste...

    Authors: Siyu Gu, Jingya Xia, Yulu Tian, Jie Zi and Zheng Ge

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:134

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women worldwide. Alterations in the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been increasingly recognized as key in the development and progression ...

    Authors: Wen Tan, Maomao Liu, Liangshan Wang, Yang Guo, Changsheng Wei, Shuqi Zhang, Chengyu Luo and Nan Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:126

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a component of the Wnt receptor complex, is thought to lineage label gastric and intestinal stem cells. LGR5 expression is increased in colorect...

    Authors: Mai Iwaya, Hiroyoshi Ota, Tomoyuki Nakajima, Takeshi Uehara, Robert Riddell and James Conner

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:119

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Function of the immune system is correlated with the prognosis of the tumor. The effect of immune microenvironment on esophageal cancer (EC) development has not been fully investigated.

    Authors: Zhi Zhang, Cheng Chen, Ying Fang, Sheng Li, Xiaohua Wang, Lei Sun, Guoren Zhou and Jinjun Ye

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:113

    Content type: Research article

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  34. We assessed visual residual tumour cells (VRTC) with both Becker’s tumour regression grading (TRG) system and Japanese TRG system in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients treated with neoadjuvant ...

    Authors: Xingxing Wang, Hao Wang, Haixing Wang, Jie Huang, Xin Wang, Zhengzeng Jiang, Lijie Tan, Dongxian Jiang and Yingyong Hou

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:111

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Despite reports of a link between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling activation, the role of the mTOR pathway, especially raptor and rictor, in HPV-relate...

    Authors: Shunsuke Kondo, Hitoshi Hirakawa, Taro Ikegami, Takayuki Uehara, Shinya Agena, Jin Uezato, Hidetoshi Kinjyo, Noritomo Kise, Yukashi Yamashita, Katsunori Tanaka, Narumi Hasegawa, Asanori Kiyuna, Hiroyuki Maeda, Mikio Suzuki and Akira Gahana

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:87

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Serum bilirubin and total bile acid (TBA) levels have been reported to be strongly associated with the risk and prognosis of certain cancers. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of pretreatment levels of...

    Authors: Yinghao Cao, Shenghe Deng, Lizhao Yan, Junnan Gu, Jia Yang, Ming Yang, Li Liu and Kailin Cai

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:85

    Content type: Research article

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  37. BCOR acts as a corepressor of BCL6, a potent oncogenic protein in cancers of the lymphoid lineage. We have found the recurrent somatic mutation of BCOR occurred in mature T-cell lymphoma (TCL). The role of BCO...

    Authors: Jin Hyun Kang, Seung Ho Lee, Jawon Lee, Murim Choi, Junhun Cho, Seok Jin Kim, Won Seog Kim, Young Hyeh Ko and Hae Yong Yoo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:82

    Content type: Research article

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  38. This study was aimed to explore the predictive ability of tumor infiltrating neutrophil (TIN) in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Furthermore, the significance of TIN’s...

    Authors: Sheng-Kai Geng, Shao-Mei Fu, Shi-Hong Ma, Yi-Peng Fu and Hong-Wei Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:68

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The role of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) in ovarian cancer is still elusive. Our aim is to explore the expression of NNMT in ovarian cancer and to assess its association with patient prognosis and t...

    Authors: Jun Li, Huiran Yue, Hailin Yu, Xin Lu and Xiaohong Xue

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:67

    Content type: Research article

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  40. We evaluated the prognostic potential of tumor 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake derived from positron emission tomography (PET) and known inflammatory hematological markers, both individually and in combinatio...

    Authors: Kewei Zhao, Chunsheng Wang, Fang Shi, Yong Huang, Li Ma, Minghuan Li and Yipeng Song

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:66

    Content type: Research article

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