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Biomarkers

This section aims to consider publications which bridge laboratory basic science and applied clinical research. The section will publish studies of diagnostic and prognostic markers which may ultimately be applicable in a clinical setting. 

Submissions need to be REMARK compliant as established in NCI-EORTC's "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies" (J Clin Oncol 23:9067, 2005) and "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): An Abridged Explanation and Elaboration" (J Natl Cancer Inst . 2018 Aug 1;110(8):803-811.). 

They should report biomarkers that have a clear biologic relevance to a particular tumor type and be validated in at least one independent validation cohort and with biological validation in vitro or in vivo. Manuscripts consisting solely of bioinformatics, computational analysis, or predictions of public databases which are not accompanied by validation will not be considered at BMC Cancer.

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  1. Basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 2 (BATF2) has been reported to participate in the occurrence and development of some malignancies. Herein, we aimed to explore the expression pattern and clin...

    Authors: Yingying Lin, Xusheng Zhou, Wei Peng, Jing Wu, Xiufeng Wu, Yan Chen and Zhaolei Cui

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:1062

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The copper metabolism MURR1 domain (COMMD) protein family involved in tumor development and progression in several types of human cancer, but little is known about the function of COMMD proteins in hepatocellu...

    Authors: Xiaobo Wang, Shujiao He, Xin Zheng, Shanzhou Huang, Honghui Chen, Huadi Chen, Weixin Luo, Zhiyong Guo, Xiaoshun He and Qiang Zhao

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:1001

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Gastrointestinal tumors are a leading cause of mortality worldwide. As shown in our previous study, miR-1290 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) and promotes tumor progression. We therefore aimed to ex...

    Authors: Liyi Xu, Yangke Cai, Xiao Chen, Yongliang Zhu and Jianting Cai

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:989

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The human microbiome is defined as the microorganisms that reside in or on the human body, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, and their genomes. The human microbiome participates in the modulation...

    Authors: Zi-Kun Yu, Rui-Ling Xie, Rui You, You-Ping Liu, Xu-Yin Chen, Ming-Yuan Chen and Pei-Yu Huang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:934

    Content type: Review

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  5. Although spread through air spaces (STAS) is a robust biomarker in surgically resected lung cancer, its application to biopsies is challenging. Moreover, limited resection is not an effective treatment for STA...

    Authors: Lanqing Cao, Meng Jia, Ping-Li Sun and Hongwen Gao

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:913

    Content type: Research article

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  6. A plethora of prognostic biomarkers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) that have hitherto been reported are challenged with low reproducibility due to high molecular heterogeneity of ESCC. The purpo...

    Authors: Meng-Xiang Li, Xiao-Meng Sun, Wei-Gang Cheng, Hao-Jie Ruan, Ke Liu, Pan Chen, Hai-Jun Xu, She-Gan Gao, Xiao-Shan Feng and Yi-Jun Qi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:906

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but aggressive neoplasia that usually presents at advanced stages. Even though some advances have been achieved in the management of patients with MPM, this malig...

    Authors: Wendy Muñoz-Montaño, Sae Muñiz-Hernández, Alejandro Avilés-Salas, Rodrigo Catalán, Luis Lara-Mejía, Suraj Samtani-Bassarmal, Andres F. Cardona, Jorge Mendoza-Desión, Daniel Hernández-Cueto, Altagracia Maldonado, Guillermina Baay-Guzmán, Sara Huerta-Yepes and Oscar Arrieta

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:892

    Content type: Research article

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  8. PTEN is the most frequently lost tumor suppressor in primary prostate cancer (PCa) and its loss is associated with aggressive disease. However, the transcriptional changes associated with PTEN loss in PCa have...

    Authors: Eddie Luidy Imada, Diego Fernando Sanchez, Wikum Dinalankara, Thiago Vidotto, Ericka M. Ebot, Svitlana Tyekucheva, Gloria Regina Franco, Lorelei Ann Mucci, Massimo Loda, Edward Matthew Schaeffer, Tamara Lotan and Luigi Marchionni

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:856

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly lethal, stage IV brain tumour with a prevalence of approximately 2 per 10,000 people globally. The cell surface proteins or surfaceome serve as information gateway in ...

    Authors: Saiful Effendi Syafruddin, Wan Fahmi Wan Mohamad Nazarie, Nurshahirah Ashikin Moidu, Bee Hong Soon and M. Aiman Mohtar

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:850

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients is difficult to predict or describe due to its high-level heterogeneity and complex aetiologic factors. Ferroptosis is a novel form of iron-depende...

    Authors: Hongyu Li, Xiliu Zhang, Chen Yi, Yi He, Xun Chen, Wei Zhao and Dongsheng Yu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:835

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) has been in controversy for a long time. Our study aimed to find an effective inflammatory marker to predict the effects o...

    Authors: Yu Fu, Xiaowan Chen, Yongxi Song, Xuanzhang Huang, Quan Chen, Xinger Lv, Peng Gao and Zhenning Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:792

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Liver cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer death. The purpose of this work is to find new diagnostic biomarkers or prognostic biomarkers and explore the...

    Authors: Shiyong Gao, Jian Gang, Miao Yu, Guosong Xin and Huixin Tan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:791

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6), as an important replication permission factor, is involved in the pathogenesis of various tumors. Here we studied the expression of MCM6 in neuroblastoma ...

    Authors: Yaoyao Gu, Xiaoxiao Hu, Xiaowei Liu, Cheng Cheng, Kai Chen, Yeming Wu and Zhixiang Wu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:784

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Lung cancer is one of the dominant causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of programmed cell death, plays a key role in cancer immunotherapy. However, the role of immuni...

    Authors: Taisheng Liu, Honglian Luo, Jinye Zhang, Xiaoshan Hu and Jian Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:783

    Content type: Research article

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  15. As a marker of differentiation, Killer cell lectin like receptor G1 (KLRG1) plays an inhibitory role in human NK cells and T cells. However, its clinical role remains inexplicit. This work intended to investig...

    Authors: Xiaodong Yang, Yuexin Zheng, Zhihai Han and Xiliang Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:752

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Considerable evidence has indicated an association between the immune microenvironment and clinical outcome in ccRCC. The purpose of this study is to extensively figure out the influence of immune-related gene...

    Authors: Guangyao Li, Xiyi Wei, Shifeng Su, Shangqian Wang, Wei Wang, Yichun Wang, Xianghu Meng, Jiadong Xia, Ninghong Song and Chao Qin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:746

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Cumulative evidences have been implicated cancer stem cells in the tumor environment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, whereas the biological functions and prognostic significance of stemness related ge...

    Authors: Liang Hong, Yu Zhou, Xiangbang Xie, Wanrui Wu, Changsheng Shi, Heping Lin and Zhenjing Shi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:716

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Currently biomarkers play an essential role in diagnosis, treatment, and management of cancer. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) determination of biomarkers such as ALK, EGFR, ROS1 or PD-L1 is mandatory fo...

    Authors: Ernest Nadal, Dolores Bautista, Luis Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Ana Laura Ortega, Héctor Torres, David Carcedo, Lucía Ruiz de Alda, J. Francisco Garcia, Paula Vieitez and Federico Rojo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:689

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The association between SOX14 and cancer has been reported. The aim of this study was to identify and validate the potential value of SOX14 methylation in the early detection of cervical cancer.

    Authors: Jing Zhao, Huiling Cao, Wenfan Zhang, Yongjuan Fan, Shujuan Shi and Rong Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:675

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Breast cancer (BRCA) is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality, which is a threat to women’s health worldwide. Ferroptosis is closely related to the occurrence and development of breast cancer. He...

    Authors: Ding Wang, Guodong Wei, Ju Ma, Shuai Cheng, Longyuan Jia, Xinyue Song, Ming Zhang, Mingyi Ju, Lin Wang, Lin Zhao and Shijie Xin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:645

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The objectives of this study were to screen out cut-off age value and age-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results...

    Authors: Fucai Tang, Zechao Lu, Chengwu He, Hanbin Zhang, Weijia Wu and Zhaohui He

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:638

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the predominant histologic subtype of lung cancer and has a complicated pathogenesis with high mortality. The purpose of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (...

    Authors: Mingze Lu, Xiaowen Fan, Weilin Liao, Yijiao Li, Lijie Ma, Mu Yuan, Rui Gu, Zhengdao Wei, Chao Wang and Hua Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:616

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Anemia has been a known prognostic factor in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). We therefore examined the effect of anemia on the efficacy of upfront abiraterone acetate (ABI) in patients wi...

    Authors: Teppei Okamoto, Daisuke Noro, Shingo Hatakeyama, Shintaro Narita, Koji Mitsuzuka, Toshihiko Sakurai, Sadafumi Kawamura, Senji Hoshi, Jiro Shimoda, Toshikazu Tanaka, Toshiaki Kawaguchi, Shigeto Ishidoya, Akihiro Ito, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Tomonori Habuchi and Chikara Ohyama

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:605

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Almost one-third of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cannot be cured with initial therapy and will eventually succumb to the disease. Further elaboration of prognostic markers of DLBCL will ...

    Authors: Tianjiao Tang, Jing Wang, Lidan Zhang, Ying Cheng, Laura Saleh, Yanni Gu and Hongbin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:603

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Malignant tumor is one of the most serious diseases endangering human health. Circular RNAs play an important role in the tumorigenesis and progression of various malignant tumors. Although various studies hav...

    Authors: Fan Chao, Shiyu Wang, Cong Zhang, Dunsheng Han, Zhe Ma and Gang Chen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:600

    Content type: Research article

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  26. No biomarker is available for identifying cancer patients at risk of developing nephrotoxicity when treated with cisplatin.

    Authors: Julia C. F. Quintanilha, Maria A. Cursino, Jessica B. Borges, Nadine G. Torso, Larissa B. Bastos, Juliana M. Oliveira, Thiago S. Cobaxo, Eder C. Pincinato, Mario H. Hirata, Murilo V. Geraldo, Carmen S. P. Lima and Patricia Moriel

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:575

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Noggin and RNA-binding protein for multiple splicing 2 (RBPMS2) are known to regulate the expression of smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and osteoblasts. However, the prognostic role of combined Noggin ...

    Authors: Sang Hoon Chun, Eun Young Kim, Jung-Sook Yoon, Hye Sung Won, Kwangil Yim, Hye Won Hwang, Soon Auck Hong, Minho Lee, Su Lim Lee, Sung-Soo Kim, Der Sheng Sun and Yoon Ho Ko

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:558

    Content type: Research article

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  28. CA19–9 is one of the most widely used tumor markers in biliary-pancreatic diseases. The measured value may not factually reflect the genuine CA19–9 level secreted by tumor, which affected by biliary obstructio...

    Authors: Bangbo Zhao, Qin Cheng, Hongtao Cao, Xingtong Zhou, Tianhao Li, Liangbo Dong and Weibin Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:517

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Lower prevalence HPV infection has been previously reported in Thai population when compared with Western countries. p16 expression indicates HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), but n...

    Authors: Lalida Arsa, Teerada Siripoon, Narumol Trachu, Sasithorn Foyhirun, Duangjai Pangpunyakulchai, Suda Sanpapant, Natini Jinawath, Poompis Pattaranutaporn, Artit Jinawath and Nuttapong Ngamphaiboon

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:504

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56 are recommended markers to identify pulmonary tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. Whether the expression of these markers in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and pulmonary ...

    Authors: Katharina Kriegsmann, Christiane Zgorzelski, Thomas Muley, Petros Christopoulos, Michael Thomas, Hauke Winter, Martin Eichhorn, Florian Eichhorn, Moritz von Winterfeld, Esther Herpel, Benjamin Goeppert, Albrecht Stenzinger, Felix J. F. Herth, Arne Warth and Mark Kriegsmann

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:486

    Content type: Research article

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  31. As is well recognized that inflammation plays a crucial role in the genesis and progression of various cancer. Here we investigate the prognostic value of a novel index: the combination of neutrophil to lympho...

    Authors: Weihao Kong, Mingwei Yang, Jianfeng Zhang, Ya Cheng, Tianxing Dai, Jian Zhang, Guoying Wang and Jianlin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:469

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) is a negative regulator of the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway and plays a contradictory role in different types of cancers. However, the its biological role p...

    Authors: Youliang Wu, Delong Meng, Xin Xu, Junjun Bao, Yexiang You, Yanjun Sun, Yongxiang Li and Dengqun Sun

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:433

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer, but factors contributing to HR-HPV persistence are incompletely under...

    Authors: Ulrike Kuebler, Susanne Fischer, Laura Mernone, Christian Breymann, Elvira Abbruzzese and Ulrike Ehlert

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:419

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Little data is available on prognostic biomarkers and effective treatment options for Kidney Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma (KIRP) patients, to find potential prognostic biomarkers and new targets was an urgen...

    Authors: Hongjun Fei, Songchang Chen and Chenming Xu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:411

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A), the key regulator of fatty acid oxidation, contributes to tumor metastasis and therapeutic resistance. We aimed to identify its clinical significance as a biomarker ...

    Authors: Zheqiong Tan, Yaru Zou, Man Zhu, Zhenzhao Luo, Tangwei Wu, Chao Zheng, Aqing Xie, Hui Wang, Shiqiang Fang, Shuiyi Liu, Yong Li and Zhongxin Lu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:409

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Identifying gene mutation signatures will enable a better understanding for the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), and provide some potential biomarkers for clinical practice. Currently, ho...

    Authors: Yan Zhuang, Hailong Wang, Da Jiang, Ying Li, Lixia Feng, Caijuan Tian, Mingyu Pu, Xiaowei Wang, Jiangyan Zhang, Yuanjing Hu and Pengfei Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:380

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Immunotherapy is a vital component in cancer treatment. However, due to the complex genetic bases of cancer, a clear prediction index for efficacy has not been established. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is one o...

    Authors: Liwei Wang, Fu Chen, Rui Liu, Lei Shi, Guosheng Zhao and Zhengjian Yan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The intimate relationship between coagulation and fibrinolysis in malignant tumors is a well-known phenomena, with the malignant phenotype enhancing coagulation and fibrinolysis. We hypothesized that soft tiss...

    Authors: Kunihiro Asanuma, Tomoki Nakamura, Tomohito Hagi, Takayuki Okamoto, Kouji Kita, Koichi Nakamura, Yumi Matsuyama, Keisuke Yoshida, Yumiko Asanuma and Akihiro Sudo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:364

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a serious health concern worldwide. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, about 15 to 30% of stage II CRC patients subjected to tumor resection with curative intent, deve...

    Authors: Sara Ribeirinho-Soares, Diana Pádua, Ana Luísa Amaral, Elvia Valentini, Daniela Azevedo, Cristiana Marques, Rita Barros, Filipa Macedo, Patrícia Mesquita and Raquel Almeida

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy supplemented by molecularly targeted therapies. There is a critical need to define biomarkers that can optimise the use of the...

    Authors: Reem D. Mahmood, Danielle Shaw, Tine Descamps, Cong Zhou, Robert D. Morgan, Saifee Mullamitha, Mark Saunders, Nerissa Mescallado, Alison Backen, Karen Morris, Ross A. Little, Susan Cheung, Yvonne Watson, James P. B. O’Connor, Alan Jackson, Geoff J. M. Parker…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:354

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is recommended as the standard treatment for refractory soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, there are comparatively few molecular determinants for predicti...

    Authors: Sang Kyum Kim, Jee Hung Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Young Han Lee, Jung Woo Han, Wooyeol Baek, Ha Young Woo, Min Kyung Jeon and Hyo Song Kim

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:336

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains high worldwide despite surgery and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment for the rapidly expanding HCC spectrum. Therefore, it is nec...

    Authors: Weike Gao, Luan Li, Xinyin Han, Siyao Liu, Chengzhen Li, Guanying Yu, Lei Zhang, Dongsheng Zhang, Caiyun Liu, Erhong Meng, Shuai Hong, Dongliang Wang, Peiming Guo and Guangjun Shi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are actively secreted by cells into body fluids and contain nucleic acids of the cells they originate from. The goal of this study was to detect circulating tumor-derived EVs (ctEV...

    Authors: Silvia R. Vitale, Jean A. Helmijr, Marjolein Gerritsen, Hicret Coban, Lisanne F. van Dessel, Nick Beije, Michelle van der Vlugt-Daane, Paolo Vigneri, Anieta M. Sieuwerts, Natasja Dits, Martin E. van Royen, Guido Jenster, Stefan Sleijfer, Martijn Lolkema, John W. M. Martens and Maurice P. H. M. Jansen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The purpose of this study was to construct a new typing model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients based on the B-cell receptor (BCR) and explore its potential molecular mechanism.

    Authors: Wenhua Jiang, Hailong Wang, Shiyong Zhou, Guoqing Zhu, Mingyou Gao, Kuo Zhao, Limeng Zhang, Xiaojing Xie, Ning Zhao, Caijuan Tian, Zhenzhen Zhang, Fang Yan, Yi Pan and Pengfei Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:297

    Content type: Research article

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