Skip to main content

Biomarkers

This section aims to consider publications which bridge laboratory basic science and applied clinical research. The section will publish studies of diagnostic and prognostic markers which may ultimately be applicable in a clinical setting. 

Submissions need to be REMARK compliant as established in NCI-EORTC's "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies" (J Clin Oncol 23:9067, 2005) and "Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies (REMARK): An Abridged Explanation and Elaboration" (J Natl Cancer Inst . 2018 Aug 1;110(8):803-811.). 

They should report biomarkers that have a clear biologic relevance to a particular tumor type and be validated in at least one independent validation cohort and with biological validation in vitro or in vivo. Manuscripts consisting solely of bioinformatics, computational analysis, or predictions of public databases which are not accompanied by validation will not be considered at BMC Cancer.

Page 1 of 8

  1. Cumulative evidences have been implicated cancer stem cells in the tumor environment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, whereas the biological functions and prognostic significance of stemness related ge...

    Authors: Liang Hong, Yu Zhou, Xiangbang Xie, Wanrui Wu, Changsheng Shi, Heping Lin and Zhenjing Shi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:716

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Currently biomarkers play an essential role in diagnosis, treatment, and management of cancer. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) determination of biomarkers such as ALK, EGFR, ROS1 or PD-L1 is mandatory fo...

    Authors: Ernest Nadal, Dolores Bautista, Luis Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Ana Laura Ortega, Héctor Torres, David Carcedo, Lucía Ruiz de Alda, J. Francisco Garcia, Paula Vieitez and Federico Rojo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:689

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. The association between SOX14 and cancer has been reported. The aim of this study was to identify and validate the potential value of SOX14 methylation in the early detection of cervical cancer.

    Authors: Jing Zhao, Huiling Cao, Wenfan Zhang, Yongjuan Fan, Shujuan Shi and Rong Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:675

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  4. Breast cancer (BRCA) is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality, which is a threat to women’s health worldwide. Ferroptosis is closely related to the occurrence and development of breast cancer. He...

    Authors: Ding Wang, Guodong Wei, Ju Ma, Shuai Cheng, Longyuan Jia, Xinyue Song, Ming Zhang, Mingyi Ju, Lin Wang, Lin Zhao and Shijie Xin

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:645

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. The objectives of this study were to screen out cut-off age value and age-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results...

    Authors: Fucai Tang, Zechao Lu, Chengwu He, Hanbin Zhang, Weijia Wu and Zhaohui He

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:638

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  6. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the predominant histologic subtype of lung cancer and has a complicated pathogenesis with high mortality. The purpose of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (...

    Authors: Mingze Lu, Xiaowen Fan, Weilin Liao, Yijiao Li, Lijie Ma, Mu Yuan, Rui Gu, Zhengdao Wei, Chao Wang and Hua Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:616

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. Anemia has been a known prognostic factor in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). We therefore examined the effect of anemia on the efficacy of upfront abiraterone acetate (ABI) in patients wi...

    Authors: Teppei Okamoto, Daisuke Noro, Shingo Hatakeyama, Shintaro Narita, Koji Mitsuzuka, Toshihiko Sakurai, Sadafumi Kawamura, Senji Hoshi, Jiro Shimoda, Toshikazu Tanaka, Toshiaki Kawaguchi, Shigeto Ishidoya, Akihiro Ito, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Tomonori Habuchi and Chikara Ohyama

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:605

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  8. Almost one-third of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cannot be cured with initial therapy and will eventually succumb to the disease. Further elaboration of prognostic markers of DLBCL will ...

    Authors: Tianjiao Tang, Jing Wang, Lidan Zhang, Ying Cheng, Laura Saleh, Yanni Gu and Hongbin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:603

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. Malignant tumor is one of the most serious diseases endangering human health. Circular RNAs play an important role in the tumorigenesis and progression of various malignant tumors. Although various studies hav...

    Authors: Fan Chao, Shiyu Wang, Cong Zhang, Dunsheng Han, Zhe Ma and Gang Chen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:600

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. No biomarker is available for identifying cancer patients at risk of developing nephrotoxicity when treated with cisplatin.

    Authors: Julia C. F. Quintanilha, Maria A. Cursino, Jessica B. Borges, Nadine G. Torso, Larissa B. Bastos, Juliana M. Oliveira, Thiago S. Cobaxo, Eder C. Pincinato, Mario H. Hirata, Murilo V. Geraldo, Carmen S. P. Lima and Patricia Moriel

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:575

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  11. Noggin and RNA-binding protein for multiple splicing 2 (RBPMS2) are known to regulate the expression of smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and osteoblasts. However, the prognostic role of combined Noggin ...

    Authors: Sang Hoon Chun, Eun Young Kim, Jung-Sook Yoon, Hye Sung Won, Kwangil Yim, Hye Won Hwang, Soon Auck Hong, Minho Lee, Su Lim Lee, Sung-Soo Kim, Der Sheng Sun and Yoon Ho Ko

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:558

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. CA19–9 is one of the most widely used tumor markers in biliary-pancreatic diseases. The measured value may not factually reflect the genuine CA19–9 level secreted by tumor, which affected by biliary obstructio...

    Authors: Bangbo Zhao, Qin Cheng, Hongtao Cao, Xingtong Zhou, Tianhao Li, Liangbo Dong and Weibin Wang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:517

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  13. Lower prevalence HPV infection has been previously reported in Thai population when compared with Western countries. p16 expression indicates HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), but n...

    Authors: Lalida Arsa, Teerada Siripoon, Narumol Trachu, Sasithorn Foyhirun, Duangjai Pangpunyakulchai, Suda Sanpapant, Natini Jinawath, Poompis Pattaranutaporn, Artit Jinawath and Nuttapong Ngamphaiboon

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:504

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. Synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56 are recommended markers to identify pulmonary tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. Whether the expression of these markers in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and pulmonary ...

    Authors: Katharina Kriegsmann, Christiane Zgorzelski, Thomas Muley, Petros Christopoulos, Michael Thomas, Hauke Winter, Martin Eichhorn, Florian Eichhorn, Moritz von Winterfeld, Esther Herpel, Benjamin Goeppert, Albrecht Stenzinger, Felix J. F. Herth, Arne Warth and Mark Kriegsmann

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:486

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  15. As is well recognized that inflammation plays a crucial role in the genesis and progression of various cancer. Here we investigate the prognostic value of a novel index: the combination of neutrophil to lympho...

    Authors: Weihao Kong, Mingwei Yang, Jianfeng Zhang, Ya Cheng, Tianxing Dai, Jian Zhang, Guoying Wang and Jianlin Zhang

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:469

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) is a negative regulator of the PI3K-Akt signalling pathway and plays a contradictory role in different types of cancers. However, the its biological role p...

    Authors: Youliang Wu, Delong Meng, Xin Xu, Junjun Bao, Yexiang You, Yanjun Sun, Yongxiang Li and Dengqun Sun

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:433

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important risk factor for the development of cervical cancer, but factors contributing to HR-HPV persistence are incompletely under...

    Authors: Ulrike Kuebler, Susanne Fischer, Laura Mernone, Christian Breymann, Elvira Abbruzzese and Ulrike Ehlert

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:419

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  18. Little data is available on prognostic biomarkers and effective treatment options for Kidney Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma (KIRP) patients, to find potential prognostic biomarkers and new targets was an urgen...

    Authors: Hongjun Fei, Songchang Chen and Chenming Xu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:411

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  19. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A), the key regulator of fatty acid oxidation, contributes to tumor metastasis and therapeutic resistance. We aimed to identify its clinical significance as a biomarker ...

    Authors: Zheqiong Tan, Yaru Zou, Man Zhu, Zhenzhao Luo, Tangwei Wu, Chao Zheng, Aqing Xie, Hui Wang, Shiqiang Fang, Shuiyi Liu, Yong Li and Zhongxin Lu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:409

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  20. Identifying gene mutation signatures will enable a better understanding for the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), and provide some potential biomarkers for clinical practice. Currently, ho...

    Authors: Yan Zhuang, Hailong Wang, Da Jiang, Ying Li, Lixia Feng, Caijuan Tian, Mingyu Pu, Xiaowei Wang, Jiangyan Zhang, Yuanjing Hu and Pengfei Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:380

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. Immunotherapy is a vital component in cancer treatment. However, due to the complex genetic bases of cancer, a clear prediction index for efficacy has not been established. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is one o...

    Authors: Liwei Wang, Fu Chen, Rui Liu, Lei Shi, Guosheng Zhao and Zhengjian Yan

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:379

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. The intimate relationship between coagulation and fibrinolysis in malignant tumors is a well-known phenomena, with the malignant phenotype enhancing coagulation and fibrinolysis. We hypothesized that soft tiss...

    Authors: Kunihiro Asanuma, Tomoki Nakamura, Tomohito Hagi, Takayuki Okamoto, Kouji Kita, Koichi Nakamura, Yumi Matsuyama, Keisuke Yoshida, Yumiko Asanuma and Akihiro Sudo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:364

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a serious health concern worldwide. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, about 15 to 30% of stage II CRC patients subjected to tumor resection with curative intent, deve...

    Authors: Sara Ribeirinho-Soares, Diana Pádua, Ana Luísa Amaral, Elvia Valentini, Daniela Azevedo, Cristiana Marques, Rita Barros, Filipa Macedo, Patrícia Mesquita and Raquel Almeida

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:359

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy supplemented by molecularly targeted therapies. There is a critical need to define biomarkers that can optimise the use of the...

    Authors: Reem D. Mahmood, Danielle Shaw, Tine Descamps, Cong Zhou, Robert D. Morgan, Saifee Mullamitha, Mark Saunders, Nerissa Mescallado, Alison Backen, Karen Morris, Ross A. Little, Susan Cheung, Yvonne Watson, James P. B. O’Connor, Alan Jackson, Geoff J. M. Parker…

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:354

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is recommended as the standard treatment for refractory soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, there are comparatively few molecular determinants for predicti...

    Authors: Sang Kyum Kim, Jee Hung Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Young Han Lee, Jung Woo Han, Wooyeol Baek, Ha Young Woo, Min Kyung Jeon and Hyo Song Kim

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:336

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. The mortality rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains high worldwide despite surgery and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment for the rapidly expanding HCC spectrum. Therefore, it is nec...

    Authors: Weike Gao, Luan Li, Xinyin Han, Siyao Liu, Chengzhen Li, Guanying Yu, Lei Zhang, Dongsheng Zhang, Caiyun Liu, Erhong Meng, Shuai Hong, Dongliang Wang, Peiming Guo and Guangjun Shi

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:331

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are actively secreted by cells into body fluids and contain nucleic acids of the cells they originate from. The goal of this study was to detect circulating tumor-derived EVs (ctEV...

    Authors: Silvia R. Vitale, Jean A. Helmijr, Marjolein Gerritsen, Hicret Coban, Lisanne F. van Dessel, Nick Beije, Michelle van der Vlugt-Daane, Paolo Vigneri, Anieta M. Sieuwerts, Natasja Dits, Martin E. van Royen, Guido Jenster, Stefan Sleijfer, Martijn Lolkema, John W. M. Martens and Maurice P. H. M. Jansen

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:315

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. The purpose of this study was to construct a new typing model for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients based on the B-cell receptor (BCR) and explore its potential molecular mechanism.

    Authors: Wenhua Jiang, Hailong Wang, Shiyong Zhou, Guoqing Zhu, Mingyou Gao, Kuo Zhao, Limeng Zhang, Xiaojing Xie, Ning Zhao, Caijuan Tian, Zhenzhen Zhang, Fang Yan, Yi Pan and Pengfei Liu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:297

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. PCNA-associated factor, the protein encoded by the KIAA0101/PCLAF gene, is a cell-cycle regulated oncoprotein that regulates DNA synthesis, maintenance of DNA methylation, and DNA-damage bypass, through the in...

    Authors: Anchalee Tantiwetrueangdet, Ravat Panvichian, Pattana Sornmayura, Surasak Leelaudomlipi and Jill A. Macoska

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:295

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. Differentiating true glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from pseudoprogression (PsP) remains a challenge with current standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The objective of this study was to explore whether pa...

    Authors: Jing Xi, Bilal Hassan, Ruth G. N. Katumba, Karam Khaddour, Akshay Govindan, Jingqin Luo, Jiayi Huang and Jian L. Campian

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:285

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Mismatch repair (MMR)/microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) are independent biomarkers that complement each other for predicting immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) efficacy. Here ...

    Authors: Jian Xiao, Wenyun Li, Yan Huang, Mengli Huang, Shanshan Li, Xiaohui Zhai, Jing Zhao, Chan Gao, Wenzhuan Xie, Hao Qin, Shangli Cai, Yuezong Bai, Ping Lan and Yifeng Zou

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:282

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. The objective of the study was to detect the expression of Kita-Kyushu lung cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1) in gastric cancer (GC) specimens and analyse the associations between KK-LC-1 expression and clinicopathol...

    Authors: Jun Ji, Jiahui Chen, Anqiang Wang, Wei Zhang, Hongge Ju, Yang Liu and Leping Li

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:267

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths across the world. Early detection of lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce the mortality rate. However, making a definitive preope...

    Authors: Wenqun Xing, Haibo Sun, Chi Yan, Chengzhi Zhao, Dongqing Wang, Mingming Li and Jie Ma

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:263

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is a dynamic setting and changes in TILs and their subpopulations are potential candidates to influence the metastatic process. Aim of this pilot study is to describe the changes o...

    Authors: Annalisa Zeppellini, Stefania Galimberti, Biagio Eugenio Leone, Claudia Pacifico, Francesca Riva, Federica Cicchiello, Serena Capici, Claudia Maggioni, Luca Sala and Marina Elena Cazzaniga

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:260

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) represents a class of RNAs (e.g., long noncoding RNAs [lncRNAs]) with microRNA (miRNA) binding sites, which can competitively bind miRNA and inhibit its regulation of target ge...

    Authors: Jingyi Chen, Yuxuan Song, Mei Li, Yu Zhang, Tingru Lin, Jie Sun, Di Wang, Yulan Liu, Jingzhu Guo and Weidong Yu

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:255

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays an important role in the energy storage and is involved in cancer progression. A growing number of evidences showed that elevated expression of DGAT1 in cancer tissu...

    Authors: Ping He, Shihuan Cheng, Feng Hu, Zhanchuan Ma and Yan Xia

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:252

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Genetic alterations have been proven to be the promising biomarkers for ICI response. However, sex biases in genetic alterations have been often ignored in the field of immunotherapy, which might specially inf...

    Authors: You Ge, Feiran Wei, Guoping Du, Gaoqiang Fei, Wei Li, Xiaoshan Li, Jinjin Chu and Pingmin Wei

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:240

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. There is evidence to consider that the tumor microenvironment (TME) composition associates with antitumor immune response, and may predict the outcome of various non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes. However, in the ...

    Authors: Guilherme Rossi Assis-Mendonça, André Fattori, Rafael Malagoli Rocha, Gustavo Jacob Lourenço, Márcia Torresan Delamain, Suely Nonogaki, Vladmir Cláudio Cordeiro de Lima, Gisele Wally Braga Colleoni, Cármino Antonio de Souza, Fernando Augusto Soares, Carmen Silvia Passos Lima and José Vassallo

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:209

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. Oral cancer (OC) is usually diagnosed at advanced clinical stages due to its asymptomatic nature and absence of pathognomonic signs in its early development phase. Delayed diagnosis is one of the major causes ...

    Authors: Mayara Martina Abatti Chiamulera, Caroline Biazzolo Zancan, Aline Pertile Remor, Marcos Freitas Cordeiro, Frederico Omar Gleber-Netto and Antuani Rafael Baptistella

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:205

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. In recent years, emerging studies have demonstrated critical functions and potential clinical applications of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in osteosarcoma. To further validate the prognostic value of multiple ...

    Authors: Wenchao Zhang, Xiaolei Ren, Lin Qi, Chenghao Zhang, Chao Tu and Zhihong Li

    Citation: BMC Cancer 2021 21:202

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: