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Table 3 Laterality in breast cancer

From: Is laterality in breast Cancer still worth studying? Local experience in Bahrain

References/Variables Laterality Right-sided breast cancer Left-sided breast cancer
Our study: Al Saad et al, 2022. -Laterality ratio is 1.06 (consistent with international reported range).
-Laterality ratio was increasing with increasing age (1.187)
-Higher Family History (40.2%)
-Locally advanced and distant metastatic tumor stages
−5-year survival was statistically significant with size of tumor
−5- year survival was statistically significant with stage of tumor
-Age < 50 years
−25% Nulliparity
-Tumor size > 5 cm
-Histopathology IDC mostly NST
-Positive HER2
-Positive lymph node status
-Higher local recurrence
− 5- year survival was not statistically significant with age of patient
− 5- year survival was not statistically significant with family history
-Lower Family history (27.8%)
-Early tumor stage
− 5-year survival was statistically significant with stage of tumor
−17% Nulliparity
-Higher breastfeeding history
-Tumor size = or < 5 cm
-Histopathology IDC ST and DCIS
-Negative HER2
-Frequent multifocality
-Higher systemic recurrence
− 5-year survival was not statistically significant with size of tumor
− 5- year survival was not statistically significant with age of patient
− 5- year survival was not statistically significant with family history
Badru F et al., 201 1[1]. Positive laterality Not Applicable Right-handed patients find small lesions in the left-side breast earlier.
Senie RT et al., 198 0[2]. Positive laterality ratio
of 1.26.
Not Applicable -Significant association with clinicopathologic features: menarche after age 13, age at diagnosis, parity especially among those between ages 40–54, and all histologic types except medullary tumors.
-Left-side breast has a 5% larger size
Weiss HA et al., 199 6[3]. -Positive laterality
− 5% excess left-sided breast cancer, it increases with age.
Not Applicable Left-side breast has slightly larger size
Roychoudhuri R et al., 200 6[4]. Breast laterality ratio is 1.07 Not Applicable - Higher tissue mass in left-side breast which leads to increased cancer incidence
Cheng SA et al., 201 8[5]. Laterality ratio in age < 40 years is 0.80 and in age > 40 years is 1.06 -Invasive carcinomas commonly affect the right-side breast at younger ages (< 40 years old). -Higher frequency of histological types except invasive mucinous and medullary carcinomas
-Right-handed patients find small lesions in left-side breast earlier.
Altundag K et al., 201 6[6]. -Left-handed patients had 2 years earlier onset of breast cancer
-Right-handed patients had higher median age at diagnosis
Not Applicable Not Applicable
Al Saad SK et al., 200 9[9]. Higher family history due to consanguineous marriage Not Applicable Not Applicable
Bao J et al., 201 4[11]. Unclear effect of laterality and primary tumor site Not Applicable Lower survival rates due to cardiac toxicity after radiotherapy
Fatima N et al., 201 3[12]. Higher laterality ratio (59%:41%; p < 0.001). -More aggressive (Similar to our results)
-Observed in younger age group (46:52 years; p < 0.0001) and with smaller primary tumor size
-Higher negative receptor status and bone metastasis
Poor survival
Zeeneldin AA et al., 201 3[13]. Laterality ratio is 1.16 -More aggressive (similar to our results)
-Higher positive HER2 and ductal cancers (similar to our results)
-Higher in younger patients (similar to our results)
-Poor survival may be related to radiation toxicity
-Higher lobular cancers
Dane S et al., 200 8[14]. Positive laterality Frequent positive axillary lymph node metastasis (similar to our results) Not Applicable
Amer MH, 201 4[15]. -Laterality ratio: 1.1
-Positive association between laterality and family history and age at diagnosis
Not Applicable -Higher frequency of getting left-sided breast cancer in all ages except < 30 years, > 90 years and 50–59 years.
-Left-sided disease was higher in Caucasian and African American ancestry.
King MC et al., 197 9[16]. No relation between family history and breast cancer laterality Not Applicable Not Applicable
Mokone-Fatunla DH et al., 201 9[17]. -Laterality ratio is 1.24
-Statistically significant association between laterality and stage (p = 0.050)
-No statistically significant difference between age, site and histological type of breast cancer and laterality
Higher frequency of advanced cancer stages (similar to our results) 10.6% excess of left-sided breast cancer
Kakkar V et al., 202 0[18]. Reversed lateralization of breast cancer may be due to estrogen hormone -More postmenopausal patients
-Higher age at diagnosis > 50 years (not statistically significant)
-Higher incidence in Indian populations
-More premenopausal patients
-Not significant lower age at diagnosis < 50 years (similar to our results)
Sughue T et al., 201 4[19]. -Laterality ratio depends on birth country
-Japan is 1.14
-Ryukyu Islands is 2.6
-Laos is 1.62
-Algeria is 2.1
-Poland is 0.92
-Overall SEER population is 1.04
Not Applicable Statistically significant, increase in laterality ratio with age, and decrease with birth year and year of diagnosis (similar to our results)
Ing R et al., 197 7[20]. -Laterality ratio is 0.97
-Women who breastfed from one side developed cancer in the contralateral breast side with increased frequency in menopause
Higher in nulliparous women (similar to our results) Higher frequency after menopause (55 years)
Safi T et al., 201 4[21]. 12% excess of left-sided breast cancer Not Applicable Higher HER2, ER and PR positive receptors
Perkins CI et al., 200 4[22]. Positive laterality Not Applicable 5% excess in left-sided breast cancer