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Table 1 Summary of studies examining CA125 level in women without ovarian cancer

From: Factors associated with serum CA125 level in women without ovarian cancer in the United States: a population-based study

Authors (Year) Number of patients Menopausal status CA125 assay used Association with higher CA125 Association with lower CA125 Reference number
Pauler et al. (2001) 18,748 (St. Bartholomew’s/ Royal London
Hospital Ovarian Cancer screening trial)
Postmenopausal CA125II radioimmunoassay (Centocor) at a single laboratory site -Caucasian race
-Prior cancer diagnosis other than ovarian cancer
-Age
-African/Asian races
-Hysterectomy
-Regular smoking
-Regular caffeine consumption
[17]
Johnson et al. (2008) 25,608 (PLCO study) Postmenopausal CA125II radioimmunoassay (Centocor) -Age
-Former smoking
-Ever use of hormone therapy
-History of breast cancer
-Non-White status
-Current smoking
-Hysterectomy
-Obesity
[18]
Akinwunmi et al. (2018) 2,004 (NEC study) Premenopausal,
Postmenopausal
CA125II radioimmunoassay, Clinical and Epidemiology Research Laboratory (CERLab) at Boston Children’s Hospital Premenopausal:
-Endometriosis
-Coronary artery disease
Premenopausal:
-Hysterectomy
-Colon polyps
[9]
Postmenopausal:
-Inflammatory bowel disease
Postmenopausal:
-Osteoporosis
-Osteoarthritis
-Hypercholesterolemia
Sasamoto et al. (2019) 815 (NEC study, model development)
473 (EPIC study, model validation)
Premenopausal CA125II radioimmmunoassay (Centocor,
Malvern, PA), CERLab at Boston Children’s Hospital (NEC study)
Meso Scale Discovery (MSD): volume-effective highly sensitive multiplex platform (Gaithersburg, MD), Genital
Tract Biology Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital (EPIC study)
-Age 30–39
-Early follicular menstrual phase
-Endometriosis
-Fibroids
-Age < 30 or > 50
-Menstrual phases other than early follicular
-Current hormonal contraception use
-Tubal ligation
[19]
Sasamoto et al. (2019) 26,981 (PLCO study, model development)
861 (EPIC study) + 81 (NHS/NHSI)
+  923 (NEC study) (model validation)
Postmenopausal CA-125II radioimmunoassay (Centocor) (PLCO study)
CA-125II radioimmunoassay (Centocor), CERLab at Boston Children’s Hospital (NEC and NHS/NHSII studies)
Meso Scale Discovery (MSD): volume-effective highly sensitive multiplex platform (Gaithersburg, MD), Genital
Tract Biology Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital (EPIC study)
-Age
-White race
-Lower BMI
-Former smoking status
-Shorter duration of smoking among former smokers
-Older age at first menstrual period
-Older age at last menstrual period
-Shorter time since menopause
-Higher parity
-History of benign ovarian cyst
-Ever use and longer duration of hormone therapy
-Hysterectomy [10]