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Table 4 Key findings to guide healthcare professionals

From: Routes of administration, reasons for use, and approved indications of medical cannabis in oncology: a scoping review

Routes of administration Definitions Examples Questions regarding cannabis use
Oils and oral solutions Solution (e.g., oil) containing synthetic or homemadse component of cannabis, generally administered with a liquid dropper •Dronabinol oral solution (Syndros™, Benuvia Therapeutics Inc., Chandler, United States) •How would you describe the effects of this treatment on your symptoms?
Capsule Soft gelatine capsules containing synthetic components of cannabis •Dronabinol capsule (Marinol™, Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Georgia, United States)
•Nabilone (Cesamet™, Valeant Canada Ltd., Laval, Canada)
•Cannabics™ (Cannabics Pharmaceuticals Inc., Maryland, United States)
•What benefits do you experience when taking a capsule containing cannabis (eg, Dronabinol)?
•What side effects do you think are associated with taking cannabis capsules (eg, Nabilone)?
Tablet Solid dosage form containing synthetic components of cannabis •Namisol™ (Echo Pharmaceuticals, The Netherlands) •Does the dose of Namisol™ provide adequate relief from your symptoms?
•What could your interprofessional team do to help you manage your symptoms with Namisol™?
Edibles Food products or liquid infused with cannabis extract •Brownies, lozenges, cookies, candies, gummies, chocolate bars, cakes, tinctures (cannabis-infused alcohol) and beverages •Have you produced or used edibles containing cannabis to relieve your cancer symptoms?
•What were your reasons for choosing to ingest cannabis edibles?
Oromucosal spray Administration with a sprayer under the tongue, inside the cheek or within the mouth of a cannabis extract •Nabiximols (Sativex™, GW Pharmaceuticals, Carlsbad, United States) •Does the frequency and dose of spray you receive each day seem adequate?
•How does the oromucosal spray modify your symptoms?
Smoked Inhalation of fresh or dried cannabis leaves, fresh or dried cannabis leaves with tobacco, resin, or hashish •Bong
•Cigarette (‘joint’)
•Pipe
•Hookah
•What are your reasons for using cannabis by inhalation?
•What compromise would you be willing to make to avoid using cannabis by inhalation?
Vaporized (‘vaping’) Use of distillate or oil with a vape pen or heating cannabis with a vaporizer •Not applicable •What are the reasons that would lead you to use another route of administration than the vaporizer?
Suppository Rectal administration of a tablet or a capsule containing cannabis oil •Not applicable •What are your reasons for using cannabis-containing suppositories?
•How would you like to receive your cannabis to avoid using a suppository?
Topical Application of a lotion, a cream, an ointment, a transdermal patch, or a gel on a body part •Not applicable •What are your reasons for using creams/lotions/ointments containing cannabis?
•What are the advantages and disadvantages of using creams/lotions/ointments containing cannabis?
Intramuscular Administration of synthetic components of cannabis •Levonantradol •What route of administration would you like to use to receive your cannabis dose?
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy Administration of a concentrated hash oil, hemp oil or cannabis oil inserted in a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy •Not applicable •What were the reasons for your administration of cannabis derivatives through your gastrostomy?
•By which route of administration, other than your gastrostomy, would you like to receive your cannabis?