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Table 1 The comparisons of knowledge and perception between the examinees and non-examinees and between the subjects and non-subjects

From: Young people’s perspectives of thyroid cancer screening and its harms after the nuclear accident in Fukushima Prefecture: a questionnaire survey indicating opt-out screening strategy of the thyroid examination as an ethical issue

  Subjects Non-subjects
Alla Examinees Non-examinees  
n 297 170 102 289
Age, mean, SD 19.2, 3.3** 18.0, 2.1* 21.9, 4.0* 25.6, 5.0**
Sex, male/female 142/155 79/91 50/52 132/157
Knowledge of the meaning of TUE (%), Yes, No 59.5, 40.5 65.5, 34.5 54.9, 45.1 -
Knowledge of existence of benefits and harms in TUE, n (%) 49 (16.5) 25 (14.9) 23 (23.0) 40 (13.8)
Knowledge of the IARC recommendation, n (%) 34 (11.4) 19 (11.2) 13 (12.7) 36 (12.5)
Estimation of benefits and harms in TUE
 Benefits are greater than harms, n (%) 132 (44.4) 79 (46.5) 42 (41.2) 123 (42.6)
 Benefits are almost equal to harms, n (%) 83 (27.9) 50 (29.4) 27 (26.5) 64 (22.1)
 Harms are greater than benefits, n (%) 13 (4.4) 7 (4.1) 5 (4.9) 14 (4.8)
 Unknown, n (%) 66 (22.2) 33 (19.4) 26 (25.5) 86 (29.8)
Higher risk perception of delayed effect, n (%) 93 (31.3)** 56 (32.9) 35 (34.3) 138 (48.3)**
Higher risk perception of genetic effect, n (%) 63 (21.2)** 38 (22.4) 23 (22.5) 106 (36.8)**
  1. aAll subjects includes examinees, non-examinees, and unknown
  2. SD Standard deviation, TUE Thyroid ultrasound examination, IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
  3. *P < 0.01 between examinees and non-examinees. **P < 0.01 between subjects and non-subjects