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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by antibiotic exposure

From: Effect of prior antibiotic or chemotherapy treatment on immunotherapy response in non-small cell lung cancer

  Exposure Outcome
Factors Total (n = 256) ATB (-) Group (n = 210) ATB ( +) Group (n = 46) P-value CR & PR (n = 71) SD & PD (n = 185) P-value
Age (Years) Mean [SD] 65.5 [9.5] 65.5 [9.6] 65.3 [9.4] 0.942 66.5 [9.7] 65.1 [9.4] 0.400
Ethnicity- No. (%)
 Non-Hispanic 243 (94.9) 200 (95.2) 10 43 (93.5) 3 0.903 69 (97.2) 2 174 (94.1)  
 Hispanic/Latino 13 (5.1) (4.8) (6.5)   (2.8) 11 (5.9) 0.482
Pack Years
 Mean [SD] 32.9 [25.9] 33.8 [26.3] 29.2 [23.9] 0.435 30.5 [23.9] 33.8 [26.6] 0.496
Clinical Stage- No. (%)
 Stage 3 16 (6.2) 14 (6.7) 2 (4.3) 0.801 5 (7.0) 11 (5.9) 0.971
 Stage 4 240 (93.8) 196 (93.3) 44 (95.7)   66 (93.0) 174 (94.1)  
Race- No. (%)
 White 241 (94.2) 200 (95.2) 41 (89.1)   65 (91.5) 176 (95.1)  
 Black or African American 9 (3.5) 7(3.3) 2 (4.3) 0.109 3 (4.2) 6 (3.2) 0.429
 Asian 6 (2.3) 3(1.4) 3 (6.5)   3 (4.2) 3 (1.6)  
Gender- No. (%)
 Female 120 (47.0) 98 (46.7) 22 (47.8) 1.000 29 (40.8) 91 (49.2) 94 0.290
 Male 136 (53.0) 112 (53.3) 24 (52.2)   42 (59.2) (50.8)  
Smoking Status- No. (%)
 Never 38 (14.8) 29 (13.8) 9 (19.6)   10 (14.1) 28 (15.1)  
 Former 184 (71.9) 153 (72.9) 31 (67.4) 0.606 51 (71.8) 133 (71.9) 0.958
 Current 34 (13.3) 28 (13.3) 6 (13.0)   10 (14.1) 24 (13.0)  
Marital Status- No. (%)
 Single 23 (9.0) 19 (9.0) 4 (8.7)   10 (14.1) 13 (7.0)  
 Married/Cohabitating 156 (60.9) 133 (63.3) 23 (50.0) 0.601 40 (56.3) 116 (62.7) 0.185
 Widowed/Divorced/Separated 48 (18.8) 38 (18.1) 10 (21.7)   12 (16.9) 36 (19.5)  
 Not Reported 29 (11.3) 20 (9.6) 9 (19.6)   9 (12.7) 20 (10.8)  
Prior Surgery- No. (%)
 No 203 (79.3) 162 (77.1) 41 (89.1) 0.106 59 (83.1) 144 (77.8) 0.449
 Yes 53 (20.7) 48 (22.9) 5 (10.9)   12 (16.9) 41 (22.2)  
Prior Chemotherapy- No. (%)
 No 110 (43.0) 92 (43.8) 18 (39.1) 0.677 41 (57.7) 69 (37.3) 0.005*
 Yes 146 (57.0) 118 (56.2) 28 (60.9)   30 (42.3) 116 (62.7)  
Prior Radiation- No. (%)
 No 178 (69.5) 148 (70.5) 30 (65.2) 0.600 50 (70.4) 128 (69.2) 0.968
 Yes 78 (30.5) 62 (29.5) 16 (34.8)   21 (29.6) 57 (30.8)  
Prior Targeted Therapy- No. (%)
 No 215 (84.0) 173 (82.4) 42 (91.3) 0.203 64 (90.1) 151 (81.6) 0.141
 Yes 41 (16.0) 37 (17.6) 4 (8.7)   7 (9.9) 34 (18.4)  
Histology- No. (%)
 Adenocarcinoma 147 (57.4) 119 (56.7) 28 (60.9)   43 (60.6) 104 (56.2)  
 Squamous Cell Carcinoma 59 (23.0) 49 (23.3) 10 (21.7) 0.865 15 (21.1) 44 (23.8) 0.818
 Other NSCLC 50 (19.6) 42 (20.0) 8 (17.4)   13 (18.3) 37 (20.0)  
NSAID Use- No. (%)
 No 235 (91.8) 190 (90.5) 45 (97.8) 0.177 63 (88.7) 172 (93.0) 0.394
 Yes 21 (8.2) 20 (9.5) 1 (2.2)   8 (11.3) 13 (7.0)  
PPI Use- No. (%)
 No 195 (76.2) 153 (72.9) 42 (91.3) 0.014* 50 (70.4) 145 (78.4) 0.241
 Yes 61 (23.8) 57 (27.1) 4 (8.7)   21 (29.6) 40 (21.6)  
ECOG- No. (%)
 0 57 (22.3) 50 (23.8) 7 (15.2)   18 (25.4) 39 (21.1)  
 1 192 (75.0) 153 (72.9) 39 (84.8) 0.195 52 (73.2) 140 (75.7) 0.662
 2 6 (2.3) 6 (2.9) 0 (0.0)   1 (1.4) 5 (2.7)  
 Not Reported 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 1 (0.5)  
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 Mean [SD] 6.9 [1.6] 6.9 [1.6] 6.9 [1.5] 0.766 7.1 [1.7] 6.9 [1.5] 0.528
  1. *Statistically Significant, when p < 0.05; Age, Pack Years, ECOG, and CCI (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test); Other Variables (Chi-Square Analysis). Smoking variables not necessarily obtained at treatment start (electronic new patient questionnaire). N/A Not Applicable, ATB antibiotic, PPI Proton pump inhibitors, NSAID Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, CR Complete response, PR: Partial response, PD Progressive disease, SD Stable disease