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Fig. 1 | BMC Cancer

Fig. 1

From: Restricting tumor lactic acid metabolism using dichloroacetate improves T cell functions

Fig. 1

Lactic acid inhibited T cell Proliferation and cytokine secretion. Human T cells were labeled with CFSE dye, stimulated for 72 h with anti-CD3ε/CD28 antibody, and then cultured in media with or without lactic acid (20 mM). After 24 h the supernatants were collected and assessed for cytokine production by ELISA. Proliferation was analyzed by CFSE dilution through flow cytometry. (A) Representative gating strategies. Cells were gated on a forward vs. side scatter dot plot. (B) Histograms show the percentage of divided T cells. (C) The bar graph displays the average percentage of proliferated T cells in the presence or absence of lactic acid. (D and E) Bar graphs depict the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ. Data are presented as mean ± SD from 3 separate experiments. An Independent T-test was used to examine the difference between the two groups. (***P < 0.001) IL: interleukin, CFSE: carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester, SD: standard deviation

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