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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of disease-specific survival (DSS) among PDAC patients (n = 236)

From: Pancreatic fibrosis, acinar atrophy and chronic inflammation in surgical specimens associated with survival in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p
Age, >  65 years 1.14 (0.85–1.53) 0.389 0.98 (0.71–1.35) 0.883
Gender, female / male 1.12 (0.84–1.50) 0.425 0.91 (0.66–1.26) 0.573
ASA score
 I–II 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
 III–IV 1.04 (0.78–1.38) 0.815 0.96 (0.69–1.35) 0.830
Blood group A, B or AB 1.22 (0.86–1.73) 0.275   
Preoperative blood test
 Ca 19–9 ≥ 37 kU/l 1.75 (1.24–2.48) 0.002 1.48 (1.02–2.16) 0.040
 CEA > 5.0 μg/l 1.53 (1.05–2.22) 0.027 1.24 (0.84–1.83) 0.285
 Albumin > 36 g/l 0.69 (0.51–0.92) 0.011 0.76 (0.56–1.05) 0.091
 Bilirubin > 20 μmol/l 1.38 (1.03–1.84) 0.030   
CRP (mg/l)
 CRP > 5 mg/l 1.75 (1.20–2.55) 0.004   
 log CRP 1.90 (1.20–3.01) 0.006   
 Hs-CRP > 3 mg/l 1.56 (1.12–2.18) 0.009   
 log Hs-CRP 1.64 (1.22–2.20) 0.001   
T stage
 T1–2 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
 T3–4 1.48 (1.04–2.10) 0.029 0.98 (0.64–1.50) 0.922
N stage
 N0 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
 N1–2 1.85 (1.30–2.63) 0.001 1.71 (1.16–2.52) 0.007
Tumor grading
 1 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
 2 1.08 (0.69–1.70) 0.741   
 3 1.99 (1.13–3.49) 0.017   
Tumor size (mm)
  ≤ 30 mm 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  > 30 mm 1.72 (1.28–2.30) 0.000 1.47 (1.04–2.08) 0.031
Perivascular invasion 1.21 (0.49–3.00) 0.680   
Perineural invasion 1.96 (0.88–4.35) 0.100   
Adjuvant treatment 1.01 (0.98–1.05) 0.407   
Perilobular fibrosis
 No fibrosis 1 (ref)   
 Mild fibrosis 0.98 (0.52–1.84) 0.939   
 Moderate fibrosis 1.44 (0.82–2.52) 0.201   
 Severe fibrosis 1.92 (1.15–3.21) 0.013   
Intralobular fibrosis
 No fibrosis 1 (ref)   
 Mild fibrosis 1.06 (0.63–1.78) 0.824   
 Moderate fibrosis 1.67 (1.04–2.69) 0.033   
 Severe fibrosis 1.95 (1.27–3.01) 0.002   
Acinar atrophy
 No atrophy 1 (ref)   
 Mild atrophy 1.03 (0.59–1.79) 0.924   
 Moderate atrophy 1.92 (1.23–3.00) 0.004   
 Severe atrophy 1.92 (1.30–2.82) 0.001   
Chronic inflammation
 No chronic inflammation 1 (ref)   
 Mild chronic inflammation 1.57 (1.11–2.21) 0.010   
 Moderate chronic inflammation 1.85 (1.26–2.74) 0.002   
 Severe chronic inflammation 1.90 (0.69–5.25) 0.214   
Combined effects of fibrosis, atrophy and chronic inflammation (Fig. 2b)
No fibrosis, atrophy and chronic inflammation 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
Peri- or intralobular fibrosis 1.03 (0.57–1.84) 0.929 1.04 (0.56–1.93) 0.893
Fibrosis and atrophy 1.89 (1.28–2.77) 0.001 1.91 (1.27–2.88) 0.002
Fibrosis, atrophy and inflammation 2.03 (1.33–3.09) 0.001 1.63 (1.03–2.58) 0.038
  1. Abbreviation: ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists