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Table 2 HR and 95%CI for change in diabetes control in PCa + GnRH exposure cohort

From: Exploring the association between use of gonadotropin releasing hormones agonists and prostate cancer diagnosis per se and diabetes control in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide, population-based cohort study

  HbA1c rose to 58 mmol/mol a HbA1c increased 10 mmol/mol b Change of T2DM drugs c Combination of all definitions
HR 95%CI HR 95%CI HR 95%CI HR 95%CI
Crude model
Using GnRH, n (%)
  No PCa 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref.
  No 0.94 (0.88–1.00) 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 0.94 (0.84–1.04) 0.96 (0.92–1.01)
  Yes 1.20 (1.08–1.33) 1.38 (1.26–1.51) 1.13 (0.95–1.34) 1.21 (1.11–1.31)
PCa diagnosis
  No 1.00 Ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref.
  Yes 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 1.10 (1.04–1.15) 0.98 (0.89–1.07) 1.02 (0.97–1.06)
PCa risk category
  No PCa 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref.
  Low risk 0.91 (0.81–1.02) 0.99 (0.89–1.10) 1.15 (0.98–1.36) 0.97 (0.88–1.06)
  Intermediate risk 0.97 (0.89–1.06) 1.00 (0.92–1.09) 0.94 (0.81–1.10) 1.00 (0.93–1.07)
  High risk 0.95 (0.85–1.05) 1.10 (1.01–1.21) 0.85 (0.71–1.01) 0.98 (0.90–1.06)
  Regional metastasises 1.25 (1.04–1.52) 1.44 (1.21–1.70) 1.06 (0.76–1.49) 1.25 (1.07–1.46)
  Distance metastasises 1.31 (1.11–1.53) 1.55 (1.35–1.78) 0.81 (0.58–1.13) 1.21 (1.06–1.38)
  Missing data 1.04 (0.77–1.40) 1.06 (0.82–1.38) 1.34 (0.87–2.06) 0.95 (0.75–1.20)
Adjusted model d
GnRH, n (%)
  No PCa 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref.
  No 0.97 (0.91–1.03) 1.06 (1.00–1.12) 0.94 (0.84–1.04) 0.98 (0.93–1.03)
  Yes 1.23 (1.11–1.36) 1.41 (1.28–1.54) 1.20 (1.01–1.42) 1.24 (1.13–1.34)
PCa diagnosis
  No 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref.
  Yes 1.03 (0.97–1.08) 1.14 (1.08–1.19) 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 1.04 (0.99–1.08)
PCa risk category
  No PCa 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref. 1.00 ref.
  Low risk 0.95 (0.84–1.06) 1.04 (0.94–1.15) 1.12 (0.95–1.32) 0.99 (0.90–1.08)
  Intermediate risk 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 1.05 (0.97–1.14) 0.95 (0.81–1.10) 1.02 (0.95–1.10)
  High risk 0.97 (0.87–1.07) 1.13 (1.03–1.24) 0.90 (0.75–1.07) 1.00 (0.92–1.08)
  Regional metastases 1.29 (1.07–1.56) 1.47 (1.24–1.74) 1.14 (0.82–1.59) 1.28 (1.10–1.50)
  Distance metastases 1.36 (1.16–1.60) 1.59 (1.38–1.82) 0.88 (0.63–1.22) 1.23 (1.09–1.40)
  Missing data 0.96 (0.71–1.29) 1.01 (0.78–1.31) 1.22 (0.80–1.88) 0.92 (0.73–1.16)
  1. a. Men with a HbA1c over 58 mmol/l and men without HbA1c data at baseline were excluded
  2. b. Men without HbA1c date at baseline were excluded
  3. c. Men using insulin at the baseline were excluded
  4. d. This model was adjusted for age at PCa diagnosis, duration of T2DM, education level, CCI, civil status, smoking habits, physical activity and BMI