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Table 1 Characteristics of the enrolled HCC patients

From: The role of muscle depletion and visceral adiposity in HCC patients aged 65 and over undergoing TACE

Variables Total Non-MDVA MDVA P value
(N = 266) (n = 187) (n = 79)
Sex 0.991
 Male 187 (70.3%) 132 (70.6%) 55 (69.6%)  
 Female 79 (29.7%) 55 (29.4%) 24 (30.4%)  
 Age (years) 69.9 ± 4.5 69.6 ± 4.3 70.8 ± 4.9 0.051
 BMI (kg/m2) 24.4 ± 3.5 25.6 ± 3.2 21.7 ± 2.5 < 0.001
 Diabetes 77 (28.9%) 60 (32.1%) 17 (21.5%) 0.112
 Hypertension 111 (41.7%) 78 (41.7%) 33 (41.8%) > 0.999
 Cardiovascular attack 10 (3.8%) 8 (4.3%) 2 (2.5%) 0.740
 Other malignancy 17 (6.4%) 11 (5.9%) 6 (7.6%) 0.805
 Renal failure on dialysis 9 (3.4%) 7 (3.7%) 2 (2.5%) 0.898
 Alcohol 146 (54.9%) 103 (55.1%) 43 (54.4%) > 0.999
 Smoking 128 (48.1%) 89 (47.6%) 39 (49.4%) 0.896
Etiology 0.098
 Hepatitis B 155 (58.3%) 116 (62.0%) 39 (49.4%)  
 Hepatitis C 60 (22.6%) 36 (19.3%) 24 (30.4%)  
 Others 51 (19.2%) 35 (18.7%) 16 (20.3%)  
 Variceal bleeding 2 (0.8%) 2 (1.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.884
 Ascites 14 (5.3%) 8 (4.3%) 6 (7.6%) 0.420
 MELD score 8.4 ± 2.3 8.4 ± 2.1 8.3 ± 2.7 0.826
 Platelet (×103/uL) 124.1 ± 58.7 123.6 ± 56.7 125.4 ± 63.4 0.828
 Prothrombin time (INR) 1.11 ± 0.13 1.12 ± 0.11 1.11 ± 0.16 0.675
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 ± 0.7 0.9 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 1.0 0.503
 AST (IU/L) 48.5 ± 33.0 49.0 ± 30.2 47.3 ± 39.1 0.731
 ALT (IU/L) 41.9 ± 30.1 40.3 ± 24.8 45.5 ± 39.8 0.285
 Albumin (g/dl) 3.5 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 0.5 0.777
 Bilirubin (mg/dl) 1.0 ± 0.5 1.0 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.4 0.815
Number of tumors 0.943
 Single 122 (45.9%) 85 (45.5%) 37 (46.8%)  
 Multiple 144 (54.1%) 102 (54.5%) 42 (53.2%)  
 Size of tumors (cm) 3.7 ± 2.8 3.4 ± 2.3 4.3 ± 3.8 0.046
 Infiltrative type of HCC 3 (1.1%) 3 (1.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0.619
BCLC 0.327
 stage 0 29 (10.9%) 20 (10.7%) 9 (11.4%)  
 stage A 136 (51.1%) 101 (54.0%) 35 (44.3%)  
 stage B 101 (38.0%) 66 (35.3%) 35 (44.3%)  
 Serum AFP (ng/mL) 376.5 ± 1308.9 369.2 ± 1382.4 393.6 ± 1123.9 0.881
TACE method 0.175
 Conventional TACE 257 (96.6%) 183 (97.9%) 74 (93.7%)  
 DEB-TACE 9 (3.4%) 4 (2.1%) 5 (6.3%)  
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation, or frequency (%)
  2. AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; AST, aspartate transaminase; BCLC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer; BMI, body mass index; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; INR, international normalized ratio; MDVA, muscle depletion with visceral adiposity; MELD, model for end-stage liver disease; TACE, trans-arterial chemoembolization; DEB-TACE, drug eluting bead TACE