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Table 2 Univariate results of potential risk and beneficial factors for functional disabilities, prolonged pain, and decreased abduction and flexion ROM, 6 months postoperatively

From: A comprehensive approach to risk factors for upper arm morbidities following breast cancer treatment: a prospective study

Variable Functional disabilities Prolonged pain Decrease ROM
Yes
n = 9
No
n = 141
p- value Yes
n = 64
No
n = 83
p- value Yes
n = 59
No
n = 95
p-value
Risk factors
 Tum. size (cm) 1.4 0.8 .046* 1.0 0.9 .880 0.9 0.9 .359
 Tissue excised (cc3) 404.0 341.0 .372 487.8 317.6 .090 520.6 389.6 .035*
 Mastectomy 55.6% 32.6% .159 46.9% 25.3% .006* 42.2% 30.5% .134
 Reconstruction 55.6% 33.3% .030* 45.3% 25.3% .011* 39.0% 31.6% .347
 Lymph node no. 3.2 2.9 .115 3.7 2.4 .002* 3.4 2.6 .027*
 Hospital pain 1.2 0.5 .006* 0.9 0.3 < .001* 0.7 0.5 .078
 Daily drain (cc) 31.1 20.1 .268 32.2 12.7 < .001* 23.3 19.9 .364
 Neoadjuvant T 11.1% 22.0% .440 28.1% 16.9% .101 27.1% 18.9% .235
 Adjuvant T 33.3% 37.6% .798 46.9% 32.5% .077 42.4% 35.8% .414
 Radiation T 88.9% 59.6% .080 62.5% 60.2% .780 72.9% 53.7% .018*
 IORT 11.1% 7.9% .733 3.2% 9.6% .132 3.5% 10.5% .120
 Pre-OP function 7.6 3.5 .617 3.8 3.2 .637 4.7 3.1 .720
 Pre-OP pain 0.3 0.2 .272 0.3 0.01 .025* 0.2 0.1 .214
 Lymphedema 22.2% 9.2% .210 21.9% 1.2% < .001* 13.6% 8.0% .211
 AWS 0 10.9% .297 20.6% 3.6% < .001* 10.3% 10.8% .937
Beneficial factors
 Physical activity 33.3% 70.3% .021* 62.5% 73.5% .154 61.1% 74.1% .081
 Physical therapy 22.2% 47.4% .143 35.9% 56.6% .013* 41.7% 49.4% .332
  1. The table describes morbidity of the upper limb 6 months after breast surgery. Functional limitation (using QuickDASH), pain (using numeric pain rating scale), and reduction in the abduction ranges of motion, are presented as “yes” meaning exist or “no” in each of the risk factors. Categorical variables are presented as number and percentage and continuous variables are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD). *Significant p-value (< 0.05)
  2. Abbreviations: Tum. tumor, ROM range of motion, T. treatment, IORT intraoperative radiation therapy, Pre-OP Preoperative, AWS Axillary web syndrome