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Table 2 Hazard ratios (95% confident intervals) of esophageal cancer according to quintiles of energy-adjusted dietary intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine

From: Association of dietary intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine with the risk of esophageal cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) prospective study

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 p-trenda
Vitamin B12
 Person-years 296,280 292,419 290,662 289,062 288,256  
 Cases, n 80 72 82 87 106  
 Model 1b 1.00 (reference) 0.93 (0.68–1.28) 1.00 (0.73–1.37) 1.00 (0.73–1.37) 1.13 (0.83–1.52) 0.31
 Model 2c 1.00 (reference) 1.09 (0.79–1.51) 1.25 (0.91–1.72) 1.28 (0.93–1.76) 1.37 (1.00–1.86) 0.04
 Model 3d 1.00 (reference) 1.13 (0.80–1.59) 1.43 (0.99–2.06) 1.58 (1.07–2.34) 1.75 (1.13–2.71) 0.01
3-year exclusion analysis
 Cases, n 71 64 71 79 91  
 Model 3d 1.00 (reference) 1.13 (0.79–1.63) 1.40 (0.95–2.06) 1.64 (1.08–2.48) 1.74 (1.09–2.78) 0.02
Vitamin B6
 Person-years 296,267 294,533 291,293 288,886 285,698  
 Cases, n 75 78 82 86 106  
 Model 1b 1.00 (reference) 1.01 (0.73–1.39) 0.87 (0.63–1.19) 0.78 (0.57–1.07) 0.81 (0.60–1.09) 0.08
 Model 2c 1.00 (reference) 1.24 (0.90–1.71) 1.16 (0.84–1.60) 1.08 (0.78–1.49) 1.08 (0.79–1.48) 0.98
 Model 3d 1.00 (reference) 1.17 (0.83–1.64) 1.04 (0.72–1.48) 0.89 (0.61–1.30) 0.81 (0.53–1.24) 0.16
3-year exclusion analysis
 Cases, n 65 70 73 75 93  
 Model 3d 1.00 (reference) 1.22 (0.85–1.76) 1.09 (0.74–1.60) 0.94 (0.63–1.42) 0.89 (0.57–1.40) 0.36
Folate
 Person-years 292,275 290,461 290,196 292,381 291,364  
 Cases, n 107 83 79 89 69  
 Model 1b 1.00 (reference) 0.80 (0.60–1.07) 0.81 (0.60–1.08) 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 0.67 (0.49–0.92) 0.03
 Model 2c 1.00 (reference) 1.02 (0.76–1.37) 1.10 (0.82–1.49) 1.24 (0.93–1.67) 1.00 (0.72–1.37) 0.71
 Model 3d 1.00 (reference) 1.01 (0.74–1.36) 1.10 (0.80–1.51) 1.27 (0.92–1.75) 1.07 (0.74–1.55) 0.50
3-year exclusion analysis
 Cases, n 95 71 76 74 60  
 Model 3d 1.00 (reference) 0.97 (0.70–1.34) 1.19 (0.85–1.65) 1.18 (0.84–1.68) 1.04 (0.70–1.54) 0.65
Methionine
 Person-years 293,843 294,206 291,479 289,686 287,464  
 Cases, n 107 92 53 74 101  
 Model 1b 1.00 (reference) 0.98 (0.74–1.29) 0.51 (0.37–0.71) 0.60 (0.45–0.81) 0.69 (0.53–0.91) 0.001
 Model 2c 1.00 (reference) 1.29 (0.97–1.72) 0.77 (0.55–1.09) 1.02 (0.74–1.40) 1.19 (0.88–1.60) 0.46
 Model 3d 1.00 (reference) 1.10 (0.80–1.50) 0.61 (0.41–0.90) 0.77 (0.52–1.15) 0.91 (0.59–1.40) 0.53
3-year exclusion analysis
 Cases, n 96 81 48 66 85  
 Model 3d 1.00 (reference) 1.08 (0.77–1.51) 0.62 (0.41–0.93) 0.76 (0.50–1.15) 0.83 (0.53–1.31) 0.34
  1. a Median values of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine intakes in each quintile were used to test for a linear trend across .
  2. b Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, and public health center area.
  3. c Model 2 was adjusted for age, sex, public health center area, body mass index (quintiles), smoking (never, past, current; ≤19 cigarettes/day, 20–29 cigarettes/day, or ≥30 cigarettes/day), alcohol consumption (non-drinkers, ≤150 g/week, 150<alcohol≤300 g/week, 300<alcohol<450 g/week, or ≤450 g/week), family history of cancer, and physical activity in METs (quintiles).
  4. d Model 3 was model 2 that was mutually adjusted further for vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate, and methionine