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Table 2 Association between spread through air spaces and pathologic variables of the biopsy specimens

From: Histopathologic features from preoperative biopsies to predict spread through air spaces in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma: a retrospective study

variable   All patients Negative for STAS (n = 75) Positive for STAS (n = 36) P value
Histologic subtypes Others 72 62 (82.7%) 10 (27.8%) <  0.001
Micropapillary/Solid 39 13 (17.3%) 26 (72.2%)
Lymphovascular Invasion Absent 92 65 (86.7%) 27 (75.0%) 0.127
Present 19 10 (13.3%) 9 (25.0%)
Chronic Inflammation Absent 57 38 (50.7%) 19 (52.8%) 0.835
Present 54 37 (49.3%) 17 (47.2%)
Mucinous features Mucin production 12 7 (58.3%) 5 (62.5%) 0.859
Cytoplasmic mucin 8 5 (41.7%) 3 (37.5%)
Necrotic/Tumor Debris Absent 69 64 (85.3%) 5 (13.9%) < 0.001
Present 42 11 (14.7%) 31 (86.1%)
ITB Absent 78 62 (82.7%) 16 (44.4%) < 0.001
Present 33 13 (17.3%) 20 (55.6%)
Desmoplasia Absent 70 69 (92.0%) 1 (2.8%) < 0.001
Present 41 6 (8.0%) 35 (97.2%)
Grade 3 Nuclei Absent 97 73 (97.3%) 24 (66.7%) < 0.001
Present 14 2 (2.7%) 12 (33.3%)
  1. * Data are mean ± standard deviation. ITB, intratumoral budding; STAS, tumor spread through air spaces