Skip to main content

Table 1 The baseline characteristics of studying variables by mortality status

From: The association of minerals intake in three meals with cancer and all-cause mortality: the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2014

Variables Other participants
(N = 26,854)
Death due to cancer
(N = 601)
P-value
Age (years) 48.8 (18.8) 67.9 (13.1) < 0.001
Men (%) 12,997 (48.4) 358 (59.6) < 0.001
Non-Hispanic white (%) 12,568 (46.8) 330 (54.9) < 0.001
Current smoking (%) 6714 (25.0) 136 (22.6) 0.660
Current drinking (%) 17,160 (63.9) 392 (65.2) 0.004
College graduate or above (%) 13,508 (50.3) 362 (60.3) < 0.001
>$ 100,000 annual household income (%) 5639 (21.0) 185 (30.8) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 28.7 (6.7) 28.4 (6.1) 0.011
Regular exercise (%) 6311 (23.5) 110 (18.3) 0.03
Dietary supplement use (%) 13,185 (49.1) 346 (57.6) < 0.001
Hypertension (%) 11,010 (41.0) 385 (64.1) < 0.001
Diabetes (%) 4109 (15.3) 160 (26.6) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia (%) 8566 (31.9) 254 (42.3) < 0.001
Total energy intake (kcal/d) 2048.5 (793.6) 1825.6 (712.9) < 0.001
Total calcium intake (g/d) 913.4 (485.7) 804.2 (450.5) 0.036
Total potassium intake (g/d) 2630.5 (1052.9) 2527.4 (1061.3) 0.864
Total magnesium intake (g/d) 288.8 (123.6) 262.3 (112.3) 0.041
AHEI 52.7 (13.5) 50.3 (13.3) 0.549
Breakfast skipping (%) 1611 (6.0) 30 (5.0) 0.382
Dietary Supplements Taken (%) 13,185 (49.1) 346 (57.6) < 0.001
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean (standard deviation). Categorical variables are presented as frequencies (percentages)
  2. Hypertension was defined by a self-reported diagnosis, the systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, or the diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg
  3. Hyperlipidemia was defined as serum triglyceride≥2.26 mmol/L, or serum cholesterol≥6.22 mmol/L, or low-density lipoprotein≥4.14 mmol/L.
  4. Diabetes was defined by a self-reported diagnosis, anHbA1c level ≥ 6.5%, or a fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/L.
  5. AHEI, Alternative Healthy Eating Index