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Table 2 The characteristic comparison of patients in the training and validation group

From: Prediction of early vascular cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in spine metastases: the Peking University First Hospital Score (PUFHS)

Characteristics The training group (n = 204) The validation group (n = 204) P-values
Age (years, mean ± SD) 67.78 ± 10.12 67.85 ± 10.44 0.95
Gender
 Male 121 129 0.42
 Female 83 75
Primary cancer types
 Slow growth 56 60 0.90
 Moderate growth 31 31
 Rapid growth 117 113
Preoperative treatments
 Topical treatments 74 72 0.98
 Systematic treatments 70 71
 No treatment 60 61
Number of treated vertebrae levels
 1 76 80 0.77
 2 47 53
 3 36 31
  ≥ 4 45 40
Vertebrae collapse
 No collapse 121 124 0.77
 Less than 50% 56 50
 More than 50% 27 30
Cortical osteolytic destruction in posterior wall
 Yes 86 88 0.84
 No 118 116
Vertebral endplate fracture
 Yes 39 37 0.80
 No 165 167
The Bilsky scale
 0 157 156 0.96
 1 22 20
 2 20 23
 3 5 5
Appearance of spine metastases
 Mixed lesions 33 37 0.60
 Osteolytic lesions 171 167
Load-bearing lines of spine
 Normal 180 176 0.55
 Abnormal 24 28
Vascular cement leakage
 Yes 57 51 0.50
 No 147 153
The total number of included vertebrae 495 467 N.A.
Sites of vertebra
 Cervical 7 5 0.93
 Thoracic 241 222
 Lumbar 218 210
 Sacral 29 30
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, N.A. not applicable