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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in the training and test cohorts

From: Prediction of the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in health screening examinees: a Korean cohort study

Variable Training cohort (n = 331,694) Test cohort (n = 85,652) p-value Total (n = 417,346)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age (years) 54.3 (9.28) 57.7 (9.6) < 0.001 55.0 (9.45)
 Sex Female 42.2% (140,035/331694) 55.5% (47,546/85652) < 0.001 44.9% (187,581/417346)
Male 57.8% (191,659/331694) 44.5% (38,106/85652)   55.1% (229,765/417346)
 Income level < 30% 28.5% (94,614/331694) 30% (25,732/85652) < 0.001 28.8% (120,346/417346)
30–80% 34.9% (115,713/331694) 40.5% (34,656/85652)   36% (150,369/417346)
> 80% 36.6% (121,367/331694) 29.5% (25,264/85652)   35.1% (146,631/417346)
Physical examination
 Body habitus Normal (BMI < 25 kg/m2) 66.2% (219,447/331529) 64.2% (54,942/85617)   65.8% (274,419/417217)
Overweight (25–30 kg/m2) 31.3% (103,922/331529) 32.6% (27,933/85617)   31.6% (131,855/417217)
Obese (>  30 kg/m2) 2.5% (8130/331529) 3.2% (2742/85617)   2.6% (10,943/417217)
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 126.59 (17.19) 126.54 (17.17) 0.33 126.58 (17.18)
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.18 (11.15) 78.37 (10.82) < 0.001 79.02 (11.09)
Blood test
 AST (IU/L) 26.55 (15.92) 26.47 (17.37) 0.25 26.53 (16.23)
 ALT (IU/L) 25.52 (19.45) 24.9 (20.63) < 0.001 25.39 (19.7)
 GGT (IU/L) 37.7 (51.85) 36.58 (53.85) < 0.001 37.47 (52.27)
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 198.32 (36.84) 199.45 (37.84) < 0.001 198.55 (37.05)
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) 97.87 (28.9) 99.53 (28.12) < 0.001 98.21 (28.75)
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 13.94 (1.49) 13.65 (1.51) < 0.001 13.89 (1.5)
Habit
 Smoking (pack-year) 5.96 (11.53) 4.6 (11.11) < 0.001 5.68 (11.46)
 Alcohol consumption (mL/week) 8.7 (18.7) 7.7 (19.1) < 0.001 8.5 (18.8)
Exercise Rarely 50.1% (162,668/324506) 56.4% (46,716/82888) < 0.001 51.4% (209,384/407394)
1–2 per week 26.9% (87,443/324506) 22.2% (18,437/82888)   26% (105,880/407394)
3–4 per week 12.1% (39,341/324506) 10.4% (8647/82888)   11.8% (47,988/407394)
5–6 per week 3.2% (10,384/324506) 3.1% (2587/82888)   3.2% (12,971/407394)
Almost everyday 7.6% (24,670/324506) 7.8% (6501/82888)   7.7% (31,171/407394)
Family history
 Liver disease 2.81% (8563/305086) 2.64% (2040/77356) 0.01 2.77% (10,603/382442)
 Hypertension 9.16% (28,072/306539) 9.69% (7548/77870) < 0.001 9.27% (35,620/384409)
 Stroke 5.47% (16,738/305817) 5.55% (4310/77600) 0.38 5.49% (21,048/383417)
 Heart disease 2.39% (7278/305106) 2.57% (1992/77365) < 0.001 2.42% (9270/382471)
 Diabetes mellitus 6.45% (19,729/306048) 6.8% (5280/77653) < 0.001 6.52% (25,009/383701)
 Cancer 13.14% (40,389/307443) 13.45% (10,498/78065) 0.02 13.2% (50,887/385508)
Underlying medical conditiona
 Diabetes mellitus 6.07% (20,139/331694) 8.83% (7565/85652) < 0.001 6.64% (27,704/417346)
 Dyslipidemia 5.95% (19,725/331694) 10.45% (8950/85652) < 0.001 6.87% (28,675/417346)
 Chronic hepatitis virus infection 2.57% (8530/331694) 3.71% (3176/85652) < 0.001 2.8% (11,706/417346)
 Human Immunodeficiency virus 6.73% (22,314/331694) 10.6% (9079/85652) < 0.001 7.52% (31,393/417346)
 Schizophrenic or delusional disorders, or mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use 15.59% (51,714/331694) 25.57% (21,905/85652) < 0.001 17.64% (73,619/417346)
 Chronic liver disease 5.4% (17,927/331694) 8.21% (7033/85652) < 0.001 5.98% (24,960/417346)
 Alcoholic fatty liver disease 1.95% (6480/331694) 2.75% (2353/85652) < 0.001 2.12% (8833/417346)
 Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases 3.01% (9996/331694) 5.07% (4345/85652) < 0.001 3.44% (14,341/417346)
  1. For continuous variables, numbers in each cell and parentheses are mean and standard deviation, respectively. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase
  2. aThis is not a complete list. The full list can be found in Supplementary Table 1