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Table 2 Association between endogenous and exogenous sex steroid hormones and the risk of female lung cancer

From: Associations between female lung cancer risk and sex steroid hormones: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence on endogenous and exogenous sex steroid hormones

Variables No. of studies x2 for heterogeneity Model selected OR a (95% CI b) P for heterogeneity Egger’s test (P-value)
Total 48 1249.27 Random 0.90 (0.86, 0.95) < .001
Indicators related to higher levels of endogenous sex steroid hormone exposure 26 679.81 Random 0.92 (0.87, 0.98) < .001
 Younger age at menarche 18 26.51 Fixed 0.93 (0.88, 0.98) .070 .5729
 Older age at menopause 15 81.94 Random 0.79 (0.68, 0.93) < .001 .3113
 Longer reproductive windows 6 13.34 Random 0.90 (0.74, 1.10) .020 .0566
 Longer menstrual cycle 9 20.89 Random 0.75 (0.60, 0.94) .007 .7938
 History of pregnancy 15 37.47 Random 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) < .001 .3856
 Younger age at first pregnancy 15 69.48 Random 1.21 (1.05, 1.39) < .001 .4527
 Multiple pregnancies 20 92.20 Random 1.06 (0.94, 1.19) < .001 .6782
Indicators related to higher levels of exogenous sex steroid hormone exposure 36 419.73 Random 0.86 (0.80, 0.93) < .001
 History of use of OC c 22 72.67 Random 0.88 (0.81, 0.96) < .001 .1380
 History of use of HRT d 25 327.30 Random 0.89 (0.78, 1.01) < .001 .1725
 Higher isoflavone intake from food 6 14.37 Random 0.73 (0.59, 0.89) .010 .9897
  1. a OR Odds ratio; b CI Confidence interval, c OC Oral contraception, d HRT Hormone replacement therapy