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Table 2 Demographic and cancer-related risk factors for chest wall abnormalities in Swiss childhood cancer survivors

From: Validation of questionnaire-reported chest wall abnormalities with a telephone interview in Swiss childhood cancer survivors

Total N = 2382 Chest wall abnormalities (n = 48)
ORcrudea (95%CI) Pb ORadjc (95%CI) Pc
Sex    0.059    0.062
 Female Ref.    Ref.   
 Male 1.8 (1.0–3.2)   1.8 (1.0–3.3)  
Age at diagnosis (years)    0.125    0.017
 0–5 Ref.    Ref.   
 6–10 0.7 (0.3–1.8)   0.5 (0.2–1.2)  
 11–15 1.2 (0.6–2.5)   0.7 (0.3–1.6)  
 16–20 2.4 (1.1–5.3)   2.5 (1.0–6.1)  
Year of diagnosis    0.768    0.602
 1976–1990 Ref.    Ref.   
 1991–2005 0.9 (0.5–1.7)   0.8 (0.5–1.6)  
Diagnosis    < 0.001    < 0.001
 I: Leukemia Ref.    Ref.   
 II: Lymphoma 6.0 (2.2–16.4)   3.8 (1.2–11.4)  
 III: CNS tumor 6.0 (2.1–17.0)   9.5 (3.0–30.1)  
 IV–XII: Other tumors 2.6 (0.9–7.3)   2.1 (0.7–6.1)  
Thoracic radiotherapy d    < 0.001    0.058
 No Ref.    Ref.   
 Yes 3.9 (2.1–7.1)   2.0 (1.0–4.2)  
Surgery to the chest e    0.002    0.004
 No Ref.    Ref.   
 Yes 4.5 (2.0–10.4)   4.5 (1.8–11.5)  
Any chemotherapy    0.348    0.029
 No Ref.    Ref.   
 Yes 1.5 (0.6–3.5)   2.9 (1.0–8.1)  
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, N Number, P P-value
  2. a Odds ratio from univariable logistic regression analysis
  3. bP-values calculated from likelihood-ratio tests comparing survivors with and without chest wall abnormality
  4. c Odds ratio from multivariable logistic regression analysis, model adjusted for all factors shown
  5. d Including the following radiation fields: total body irradiation, mantle field, thorax, lungs, mediastinum, or thoracic spine
  6. e Including surgery to clavicle, scapulae and ribs, tumor excision from soft tissue on thorax, muscles on thorax, spine of thorax, and tumor or lymph node biopsy on the chest wall