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Table 1 Participant Characteristics by Smoking Status

From: Oral cancer knowledge and screening behavior among smokers and non-smokers in rural communities

Variable Never Smoker (n = 1206), Mean ± SD or No. (%) Former Smoker (n = 674), Mean ± SD or No. (%) Current Smokers (n = 380), Mean ± SD or No. (%) Total (N = 2260), Mean ± SD or No. (%) p
Age (years) 55.0 ± 15.0 60.1 ± 13.4 51.1 ± 13.5 55.9 ± 14.6 < .0001
Gender
 Female 744 (61.7) 318 (47.2) 198 (52.1) 1260 (55.8) < .0001
 Male 462 (38.3) 356 (52.8) 182 (47.9) 1000 (44.2)  
Race
 Black 441 (36.6) 117 (17.4) 107 (28.2) 665 (29.4) < .0001
 White 765 (63.4) 557 (82.6) 273 (71.8) 1595 (70.6)  
Financial security (Range − 1 ~ 1) 0.2 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.6 −0.2 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.6 < .0001
Education
 8th grade or less 18 (1.5) 13 (1.9) 12 (3.2) 43 (1.9) < .0001
 HS (Not graduated) 62 (5.1) 40 (5.9) 53 (13.9) 155 (6.9)  
 HS/GED (Graduated) 303 (25.1) 182 (27.0) 128 (33.7) 613 (27.1)  
 Some college / 2-year degree 337 (27.9) 213 (31.6) 134 (35.3) 684 (30.3)  
 4-year college graduate 217 (18.0) 121 (18.0) 29 (7.6) 367 (16.2)  
 More than 4-year college degree 269 (22.3) 105 (15.6) 24 (6.3) 398 (17.6)  
Depression (CES-D)
 No 956 (79.3) 532 (78.9) 236 (62.1) 1724 (76.3) < .0001
 Yes 250 (20.7) 142 (21.1) 144 (37.9) 536 (23.7)  
Chronic conditions
 0 479 (39.7) 160 (23.7) 117 (30.8) 756 (33.5) < .0001
 1 287 (23.8) 163 (24.2) 82 (21.6) 532 (23.5)  
  ≥ 2 440 (36.5) 351 (52.1) 181 (47.6) 972 (43.0)  
Ever heard of OPC exam
 No 635 (52.7) 332 (49.3) 236 (62.1) 1203 (53.2) .0002
 Yes 571 (47.3) 342 (50.7) 144 (37.9) 1057 (46.8)  
Concern
 Not concerned 548 (45.4) 254 (37.7) 68 (17.9) 870 (38.5) < .0001
 Little concern 411 (34.1) 292 (43.3) 157 (41.3) 860 (38.1)  
 Very concerned 247 (20.5) 128 (19.0) 155 (40.8) 530 (23.5)  
Ever had OPC exam
 No 636 (52.7) 322 (47.8) 249 (65.5) 1207 (54.3) < .0001
 Yes 570 (47.3) 352 (52.2) 131 (34.5) 1053 (46.6)  
MOSS (Range 0 ~ 4) 3.0 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 .0004
Health literacy (Range 0 ~ 3) 2.4 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 0.7 < .0001
  1. Note: HS High School, GED General Equivalency Diploma, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, MOSS Medical Outcomes Social Support
  2. All percentages are survey sampling weighted. The p-values smaller than .05 are bolded