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Table 3 Univariate mediation analysis of selected metabolites, adjusted for age and gender

From: The mediation effect of serum metabolites on the relationship between long-term smoking exposure and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Metabolites NDE PNDE NIE PNIE TE PTE %TE
Ever smoking        
Carnitine (9:0) 1.011 0.010 0.103 0.141 1.114 0.003 9.25
Histidine 0.896 0.051 0.609 0.002 1.505 < 0.001 40.47
Glutamine 0.847 0.032 0.363 0.001 1.210 0.002 30.00
Smoking index        
PG (14:1/7:0) 1.09E-03 0.008 2.18E-04 0.345 1.31E-03 0.003 16.64
Carnitine (9:0) 1.15E-03 0.008 1.12E-04 0.064 1.27E-03 0.004 8.82
Histidine 8.62E-04 0.059 5.74E-04 < 0.001 1.44E-03 0.002 39.86
Glutamine 9.54E-04 0.031 3.97E-04 < 0.001 1.35E-03 0.002 29.41
Cholic acid 1.15E-03 0.008 1.14E-04 0.016 1.27E-03 0.003 8.98
  1. NDE, natural direct effect
  2. NIE, natural indirect effect
  3. TE, total effect
  4. % TE: the proportion of total effect explained by each mediator, calculated as NIE/TE