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Table 6 Test of Biomarker Change Using a Linear Mixed Modela

From: “Randomized trial of physical activity on quality of life and lung cancer biomarkers in patients with advanced stage lung cancer: a pilot study”

  Intervention Group Usual Care  
Biomarker Week 1 Week 12 Change Week 12 Change Difference of change P- value
Insulin (uIU/mL; SDb) 16.81 (2.53) 21.89 (7.50) 5.08 (7.29) 25.12 (7.31) 8.32 (7.01) −3.24 (10.11) 0.752
Leptin (ng/mL) 21.84 (5.63) 22.18 (5.08) 0.34 (3.28) 18.53 (5.84) − 3.31 (3.50) 3.65 (4.55) 0.430
C-Reactive Protein (CRP; ng/mL) 4344.41 (459.07) 2963.07 (650.29) − 1381.34 (682.02) 4205.55 (717.93) −138.87 (665.26) − 1242.47 (918.90) 0.188
Soluble PD-1 (pg/mL) 90.51 (19.86) 243.27 (36.44) 152.76 (45.51) 23.48 (38.69) −67.03 (41.49) 219.79 (54.47) < 0.001
Soluble PD-L1 (pg/mL) 9.76 (0.34) 10.98 (8.14) 1.22 (8.18) 22.06 (7.64) 12.30 (7.64) −11.08 (11.17) 0.331
  1. a Only n = 10 patients provided baseline and follow-up samples; 6 in the intervention group and 4 in usual care
  2. b SD = Standard Deviation