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Table 4 Incidence rate ratios (with 95% confidence interval) by histological subtype and country of origin, adjusted for age and sociodemographic and socioeconomic indicators - Belgian male residents aged 50–74 years, 2004–2013

From: Lung cancer incidence differences in migrant men in Belgium, 2004–2013: histology-specific analyses

Overall lung cancer Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Migrant origin
 Belgian (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
 Italian 1.08 (1.01–1.15) 1.09 (1.02–1.16) 0.90 (0.84–0.96) 1.07 (1.00–1.14) 0.99 (0.92–1.05) 0.85 (0.80–0.91)
 Turkish 1.05 (0.91–1.21) 1.10 (0.96–1.26) 0.82 (0.71–0.94) 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 1.05 (0.91–1.21) 0.82 (0.71–0.95)
 Moroccan 0.81 (0.72–0.90) 0.84 (0.75–0.93) 0.63 (0.57–0.71) 0.70 (0.63–0.78) 0.81 (0.73–0.91) 0.63 (0.56–0.70)
Age 1.07 (1.07–1.07) 1.07 (1.07–1.07) 1.06 (1.06–1.06) 1.07 (1.07–1.07) 1.07 (1.07–1.07) 1.07 (1.06–1.07)
Civil status
 Single   1.11 (1.06–1.15)     0.95 (0.91–0.99)
 Divorced   1.43 (1.39–1.48)     1.19 (1.15–1.23)
 Widow   1.21 (1.14–1.28)     1.09 (1.03–1.16)
 Married   (ref.)     (ref.)
Educational attainment
 Primary or less    2.44 (2.34–2.53)    2.32 (2.22–2.41)
 Lower secondary    1.93 (1.85–2.00)    1.86 (1.79–1.93)
 Upper secondary    1.52 (1.45–1.58)    1.49 (1.43–1.56)
 Tertiary    (ref.)    (ref.)
 Missing    2.52 (2.41–2.63)    2.26 (2.16–2.36)
Home ownership
 Tenant     1.72 (1.67–1.76)   1.54 (1.50–1.59)
 Owner     (ref.)   (ref.)
 Missing     1.56 (1.48–1.64)   1.30 (1.23–1.37)
Region of residence
 Flanders      (ref.) (ref.)
 Brussels-Capital Region      1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.98 (0.93–1.03)
 Wallonia      1.20 (1.17–1.23) 1.19 (1.17–1.22)
Small-cell lung carcinoma Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Migrant origin
 Belgian (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
 Italian 0.92 (0.78–1.10) 0.93 (0.78–1.11) 0.75 (0.63–0.90) 0.92 (0.77–1.09) 0.84 (0.70–1.00) 0.70 (0.58–0.83)
 Turkish 1.20 (0.87–1.66) 1.25 (0.91–1.73) 0.91 (0.65–1.25) 1.12 (0.81–1.55) 1.21 (0.88–1.68) 0.91 (0.66–1.26)
 Moroccan 0.73 (0.55–0.97) 0.75 (0.57–1.00) 0.56 (0.42–0.74) 0.64 (0.48–0.85) 0.75 (0.56–1.00) 0.55 (0.41–0.74)
Age 1.07 (1.06–1.07) 1.07 (1.07–1.07) 1.06 (1.05–1.06) 1.07 (1.07–1.07) 1.07 (1.07–1.07) 1.06 (1.06–1.06)
Civil status
 Single   1.08 (0.97–1.20)     0.93 (0.83–1.03)
 Divorced   1.40 (1.28–1.52)     1.17 (1.07–1.28)
 Widow   1.15 (0.99–1.34)     1.03 (0.89–1.20)
 Married   (ref.)     (ref.)
Educational attainment
 Primary or less    3.03 (2.73–3.37)    2.92 (2.62–3.24)
 Lower secondary    2.32 (2.09–2.57)    2.24 (2.02–2.49)
 Upper secondary    1.75 (1.57–1.96)    1.73 (1.55–1.94)
 Tertiary    (ref.)    (ref.)
 Missing    3.08 (2.75–3.45)    2.84 (2.53–3.19)
Home ownership
 Tenant     1.68 (1.57–1.80)   1.49 (1.39–1.60)
 Owner     (ref.)   (ref.)
 Missing     1.39 (1.22–1.59)   1.13 (0.98–1.29)
Region of residence
 Flanders      (ref.) (ref.)
 Brussels-Capital Region      1.00 (0.88–1.13) 0.98 (0.87–1.12)
 Wallonia      1.23 (1.16–1.31) 1.23 (1.16–1.31)
Squamous cell carcinoma Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Migrant origin
 Belgian (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
 Italian 1.12 (1.00–1.25) 1.13 (1.01–1.27) 0.90 (0.80–1.00) 1.11 (0.99–1.24) 1.02 (0.91–1.14) 0.85 (0.75–0.95)
 Turkish 1.17 (0.92–1.49) 1.24 (0.97–1.57) 0.86 (0.68–1.09) 1.06 (0.83–1.35) 1.21 (0.95–1.53) 0.89 (0.70–1.14)
 Moroccan 0.68 (0.55–0.84) 0.72 (0.58–0.88) 0.51 (0.41–0.63) 0.59 (0.47–0.72) 0.73 (0.59–0.91) 0.54 (0.43–0.67)
Age 1.09 (1.09–1.09) 1.09 (1.09–1.09) 1.08 (1.07–1.08) 1.09 (1.09–1.09) 1.09 (1.09–1.09) 1.08 (1.08–1.08)
Civil status
 Single   1.25 (1.16–1.34)     1.05 (0.97–1.13)
 Divorced   1.44 (1.36–1.53)     1.18 (1.11–1.26)
 Widow   1.26 (1.14–1.39)     1.12 (1.02–1.24)
 Married   (ref.)     (ref.)
Educational attainment
 Primary or less    3.21 (2.97–3.46)    3.02 (2.80–3.26)
 Lower secondary    2.37 (2.20–2.56)    2.28 (2.11–2.46)
 Upper secondary    1.74 (1.60–1.89)    1.71 (1.57–1.86)
 Tertiary    (ref.)    (ref.)
 Missing    3.34 (3.08–3.63)    2.94 (2.70–3.19)
Home ownership       
Tenant     1.78 (1.70–1.86)   1.58 (1.50–1.66)
Owner     (ref.)   (ref.)
Missing     1.71 (1.57–1.87)   1.38 (1.26–1.50)
Region of residence
 Flanders      (ref.) (ref.)
 Brussels-Capital Region      0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.86 (0.78–0.94)
 Wallonia      1.22 (1.17–1.28) 1.22 (1.17–1.28)
Adenocarcinoma Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Migrant origin
 Belgian (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
 Italian 1.25 (1.13–1.38) 1.26 (1.14–1.39) 1.11 (1.00–1.23) 1.24 (1.12–1.38) 1.12 (1.01–1.24) 1.01 (0.91–1.12)
 Turkish 0.96 (0.76–1.22) 0.99 (0.78–1.26) 0.81 (0.64–1.03) 0.90 (0.71–1.14) 0.91 (0.72–1.15) 0.76 (0.60–0.96)
 Moroccan 1.04 (0.89–1.21) 1.06 (0.91–1.24) 0.88 (0.75–1.03) 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.76 (0.64–0.89)
Age 1.05 (1.05–1.06) 1.05 (1.05–1.06) 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 1.05 (1.05–1.06) 1.05 (1.05–1.06) 1.05 (1.05–1.05)
Civil status
 Single   0.98 (0.91–1.05)     0.85 (0.79–0.91)
 Divorced   1.36 (1.28–1.44)     1.13 (1.07–1.20)
 Widow   1.16 (1.05–1.29)     1.06 (0.96–1.18)
 Married   (ref.)     (ref.)
Educational attainment
 Primary or less    1.79 (1.68–1.90)    1.73 (1.62–1.84)
 Lower secondary    1.57 (1.48–1.66)    1.53 (1.44–1.62)
 Upper secondary    1.35 (1.27–1.44)    1.34 (1.26–1.43)
 Tertiary    (ref.)    (ref.)
 Missing    1.88 (1.75–2.01)    1.72 (1.60–1.85)
Home ownership
 Tenant     1.69 (1.62–1.76)   1.55 (1.48–1.62)
 Owner     (ref.)   (ref.)
 Missing     1.41 (1.29–1.53)   1.24 (1.13–1.36)
Region of residence
 Flanders      (ref.) (ref.)
 Brussels-Capital Region      1.33 (1.23–1.43) 1.25 (1.16–1.35)
 Wallonia      1.23 (1.18–1.28) 1.22 (1.17–1.27)
Large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Migrant origin
 Belgian (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
 Italian 0.60 (0.41–0.89) 0.61 (0.42–0.90) 0.51 (0.35–0.75) 0.60 (0.41–0.89) 0.84 (0.56–1.24) 0.73 (0.49–1.08)
 Turkish 0.65 (0.29–1.46) 0.68 (0.31–1.53) 0.52 (0.23–1.15) 0.60 (0.27–1.35) 0.74 (0.33–1.65) 0.60 (0.27–1.33)
 Moroccan 0.69 (0.41–1.16) 0.71 (0.42–1.21) 0.56 (0.33–0.96) 0.61 (0.36–1.03) 0.90 (0.53–1.54) 0.72 (0.42–1.24)
Age 1.09 (1.08–1.10) 1.09 (1.08–1.10) 1.08 (1.07–1.09) 1.09 (1.08–1.10) 1.09 (1.08–1.10) 1.08 (1.07–1.09)
Civil status
 Single   1.11 (0.92–1.35)     1.00 (0.82–1.21)
 Divorced   1.44 (1.23–1.68)     1.31 (1.11–1.53)
 Widow   1.37 (1.08–1.75)     1.28 (1.01–1.63)
 Married   (ref.)     (ref.)
Educational attainment
 Primary or less    2.54 (2.12–3.03)    2.24 (1.87–2.68)
 Lower secondary    1.90 (1.59–2.27)    1.78 (1.49–2.13)
 Upper secondary    1.42 (1.17–1.73)    1.33 (1.10–1.63)
 Tertiary    (ref.)    (ref.)
 Missing    2.30 (1.88–2.81)    2.08 (1.70–2.56)
Home ownership
 Tenant     1.62 (1.43–1.82)   1.51 (1.33–1.71)
 Owner     (ref.)   (ref.)
 Missing     1.44 (1.14–1.82)   1.30 (1.02–1.65)
Region of residence
 Flanders      (ref.) (ref.)
 Brussels-Capital Region      0.46 (0.35–0.62) 0.44 (0.33–0.59)
 Wallonia      0.57 (0.50–0.65) 0.57 (0.50–0.65)
Other/unknown Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Migrant origin
 Belgian (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.) (ref.)
 Italian 0.85 (0.69–1.06) 0.87 (0.70–1.08) 0.70 (0.57–0.87) 0.85 (0.68–1.05) 0.75 (0.60–0.93) 0.65 (0.53–0.81)
 Turkish 0.96 (0.63–1.48) 1.03 (0.67–1.59) 0.73 (0.47–1.12) 0.87 (0.56–1.33) 1.01 (0.66–1.56) 0.80 (0.52–1.23)
 Moroccan 0.56 (0.38–0.81) 0.59 (0.40–0.86) 0.42 (0.29–0.62) 0.48 (0.33–0.70) 0.63 (0.43–0.93) 0.49 (0.34–0.73)
Age 1.09 (1.08–1.09) 1.09 (1.09–1.09) 1.08 (1.07–1.08) 1.09 (1.08–1.09) 1.09 (1.08–1.09) 1.08 (1.08–1.09)
Civil status
 Single   1.20 (1.06–1.35)     1.02 (0.90–1.15)
 Divorced   1.72 (1.57–1.89)     1.42 (1.29–1.57)
 Widow   1.21 (1.03–1.43)     1.09 (0.92–1.29)
 Married   (ref.)     (ref.)
Educational attainment
 Primary or less    2.50 (2.23–2.82)    2.36 (2.10–2.65)
 Lower secondary    1.92 (1.71–2.16)    1.84 (1.63–2.06)
 Upper secondary    1.42 (1.26–1.62)    1.40 (1.23–1.59)
 Tertiary    (ref.)    (ref.)
 Missing    2.65 (2.34–3.01)    2.26 (1.98–2.58)
Home ownership
 Tenant     1.75 (1.62–1.89)   1.54 (1.42–1.66)
 Owner     (ref.)   (ref.)
 Missing     1.89 (1.65–2.16)   1.54 (1.33–1.77)
Region of residence
 Flanders      (ref.) (ref.)
 Brussels-Capital Region      0.80 (0.68–0.95) 0.75 (0.63–0.88)
 Wallonia      1.33 (1.24–1.42) 1.31 (1.22–1.41)
  1. Model 1 is adjusted for age at start of follow-up; Model 2 is adjusted for age at start of follow-up and civil status; Model 3 is adjusted for age at start of follow-up and educational attainment; Model 4 is adjusted for age at start of follow-up and home ownership; Model 5 is adjusted for age at start of follow-up and region of residence; Model 6 is adjusted for all variables of interest. Number of observations = 1,876,628