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Table 2 Predictors for early and late recurrence after primary curative treatment by using polytomous logistic regression

From: Factors predicting long-term outcomes of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma after primary curative treatment: the role of surgical or nonsurgical methods

Variables Univariate model (OR, 95% CI) Multivariate model (OR, 95% CI)
Early recurrence
(< 1 year) vs No
Late recurrence
(> 1 year) vs No
Early recurrence
(< 1 year) vs No
Late recurrence
(> 1 year) vs No
Host-related factors
 Age > 65 years 1.08(0.62–1.89) 1.31 (0.76–2.27)   
 Male 1.26 (0.70–2.27) 1.57 (0.88–2.79)   
 AST > 80 IU/L 1.49 (0.72–3.09) 1.62 (0.79–3.33)   
 ALT > 80 IU/L 1.59 (0.77–3.28) 2.15 (1.07–4.31)   
 Total bilirubin > 1.5 mg/dL 0.81 (0.29–2.21) 0.43 (0.13–1.41)   
 Prothrombin time (INR) > 1.3 0.69 (0.16–2.98) 1.63 (0.50–5.32)   
 Albumin <3.0 mg/dL 1.69 (0.52–5.51) 0.90 (0.24–3.46)   
 Child-Pugh score B (vs A) 1.39 (0.45–4.30) 0.75 (0.20–2.72)   
 CSPH 2.97 (1.48–5.96) 2.32 (1.15–4.70) 2.03 (0.88–4.67) 1.63 (0.71–3.75)
 Creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL 1.19 (0.43–3.29) 0.84 (0.28–2.51)   
 FIB-4 index > 3.25 2.15 (1.22–3.79) 1.86 (1.06–3.25) 1.40 (0.67–2.90) 1.13 (0.56–2.30)
 Diabetes 1.37 (0.74–2.54) 1.38 (0.75–2.54)   
 ALBI grade 2 or 3 (vs 1) 1.29 (0.63–2.61) 1.17 (0.59–2.34)   
Tumor characteristics
 Size > 3 cm 0.84 (0.48–1.47) 0.80 (0.46–1.39)   
 Multinodularity 3.71 (1.84–7.49) 2.25 (1.09–4.66) 3.66 (1.72–7.80) 2.50 (1.14–5.50)
 AFP > 20 ng/mL 2.33 (1.31–4.14) 1.64 (0.92–2.91) 2.06 (1.12–3.81) 1.40 (0.75–2.58)
 BCLC stage A (vs 0) 1.55 (0.79–3.05) 1.32 (0.68–2.53)   
Histopathological findings
 Edmonson grade III & IV 0.96 (0.36–2.56) 2.04 (0.88–4.72)   
 Ishak fibrosis score 4–6 0.94 (0.50–1.74) 0.98 (0.53–1.81)   
Viral factors
 HBV 1.61 (0.70–3.68) 4.75 (1.53–14.8) 1.88 (0.77–4.63) 5.11 (1.59–16.4)
 HCV 2.63 (1.11–6.21) 8.90 (2.81–28.2) 2.44 (0.93–6.41) 8.07 (2.41–27.0)
 HBV and HCV 2.09 (0.44–9.96) 2.87 (0.39–21.3) 1.13 (0.19–6.58) 1.91 (0.24–15.5)
Treatment modality
 RFA-TACE (vs Surgery) 1.32 (0.72–2.30) 1.59 (0.91–2.78)   
  1. aHR adjusted hazard ratio, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, INR international normalized ratio, CSPH clinically significant portal hypertension, ALBI albumin-bilirubin, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, BCLC Barcelona-Clınic Liver Cancer staging system, RFA-TACE Radiofrequency ablation with or without transcatheter arterial chemoembolization