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Table 5 Results of studies on benzene exposure and specific type of myeloid malignancy*

From: The importance of evaluating specific myeloid malignancies in epidemiological studies of environmental carcinogens

Reference Exposure category AML CML MDS MPN Myeloid leukemia
Point estimate 95% CI Point estimate 95% CI Point estimate 95% CI Point estimate 95% CI Point estimate 95% CI
Adegoke 2003 [37] >  15 yrs 2.9 1.2–7.0 5 1.8–13.9       
Albin 2003 [38] High exp      0.95 0.54–1.7     
Blair 2001 [39] High exp. 1.1 0.3–3.9 0 2.6 0.7–9.7     
Bjork 2001a [40] Exposed    1.2 0.66–2.3       
Bonzini 2019 [41] 20+ years 2.05 0.66–6.36 1.34 0.17–8.80      1.98 0.82–4.75
Collins 2015 [42] 25+ ppm-yrs 1.39 0.17–5.03    25.1 0.63–139.6    1.93 0.53–4.94
Copley 2017 [43] > 12 ppm      3.47 1.65–7.28     
Costantini 2008 [44] M/H exp 0.9 0.4–2.3         
Divine 1999 [45] Exposed 1.29 0.79–1.99 1.05 0.54–1.83       
Divine 2000 [46] Exposed 1.92 1.10–3.13 0.94 0.34–2.05       
Guenel 2002 [47] > 5.5 unit-yrs 2.4 0.7–8.5 1.2 0.1–11.4       
Huebner 2009 [48] Exposed 1.07 0.84–1.36 1.01 0.67–1.47 1.64 0.78–3.01     
Ireland 1997† [49] ≥ 72 ppm-mo 4.5 0.1–25.3         
Kirkeleit 2008 [50] Exposed 2.89 1.25–6.67 1.44 0.19–10.7       
Linet 2015 [51] Exposed 2.1 0.9–5.2 2.5 0.8–10.7 1.9-∞    2.2 1.1–4.6
McCraw 1985 [52] Exposed 3.94 1.72–7.88 1.21 0.02–6.96       
Poynter 2017 [53] ≥ 5 years 1.77 1.19–2.63    2.10 1.35–3.28     
Rhomberg 2016 [54] ≥ 80.11 ppm-yrs (0 lag) 10.11 3.71–22.01         
  ≥ 74.55 ppm-yrs (10 yr lag) 10.76 3.95–23.43         
  ≥ 73.53 ppm-yrs (20 yr lag) 6.37 1.31–18.61         
Rushton 2014 [55] > 2.93 ppm-yrs 1.39 0.68–2.85         
  >  0.259 ppm 1.90 0.86–4.18         
  >  28 yrs 1.70 0.75–3.87         
  > 0.413 max ppm 1.65 0.75–3.63         
Saberi Hosnijeh 2013 [33] Exposed 1.52 0.78–1.81 1.97 0.75–5.19      1.60 0.95–2.69
Sathiakumar 1995 [56] Exposed 2.8 1.1–7.3 1.6 0.43–5.9      2.1 1.0–4.3
Satin 1996 [57] Exposed 0.63 0.30–1.15 0.84 0.31–1.84       
Schnatter 2012 [58] > 2.93 ppm-yrs    2.20 0.63–7.68 4.33 1.31–14.3 1.79 0.68–4.74   
  > 0.259 ppm    0.91 0.25–3.28 3.12 0.90–10.8 1.17 0.39–3.52   
  > 28 yrs    1.42 0.35–5.67 1.74 0.61–4.99 0.82 0.25–2.73   
  > 0.413 max ppm    0.59 0.15–2.37 2.81 0.79–10.1 0.85 0.28–2.61   
Stenehjem 2015 [59] ≥0.124 ppm-yrs 4.85 0.88–27.0        2.24δ§ 0.65–7.71
  ≥13 yrs 0.97 0.08–11.0        1.47§ 0.37–5.88
  >  0.013 ppm 3.47 0.63–19.0        1.66§ 0.48–5.74
Strom 2005 [60] High exp      2.05 1.20–3.51     
Talibov 2014 [34] > 13.6 ppm-yrs 0.80 0.56–1.15         
Teras 2019 [61] ≥1.49 μg/m3 0.98 0.68–1.42    1.28 0.86–1.92    0.89 0.67–1.19
Wong 1993 [62] Exposed
(marine)
0.74 0.24–1.73 1.33 0.36–3.4       
  Exposed (land) 1.51 0.80–2.57 0.26 0.01–1.43       
Wong 2001a [63] Exposed 1.47 0.76–2.57 1.31 0.43–3.07       
Wong 2001b [64] Exposed 0.45 0.01–2.53 1.96 0.24–7.07       
Wong 2010 [65] Exposed 1.43 1.05–1.93         
  1. * Only studies reporting results on specific myeloid malignancy types are reported. †Study reports acute-nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). ‡RR estimate is for MDS/AML combined. §Myeloid malignancies including MDS. Four cases of MDS were reported, and MDS was not analyzed separately
  2. Abbreviations: NA Not available; M/H Medium/high; exp. Exposure; mo Months; ppm Parts per million; yrs. Years;
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