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Table 2 Clinical characteristics associated with fat necrosis after breast reconstruction

From: Natural course of fat necrosis after breast reconstruction: a 10-year follow-up study

  Fat necrosis (n = 42)
Mean period until the detection of fat necrosis (months, ±SD) 21.1 ± 17.2
Mean mass size of fat necrosis at the time of diagnosis (cm, ±SD) 2.5 ± 1.5
Grade (n, %)
 1 (Radiologic evidence only) 33 (78.6)
 2 (Palpable but not visible)
 3 (Palpable and visible) 3 (7.1)
 4 (Painful fat necrosis) 6 (14.3)
Imaging modalitiesa (n, %)
 Mammography 13 (31.0)
 Ultrasonography 41 (97.6)
 Breast MR imaging 1 (2.4)
Pathologic confirmation (n, %)
 Fine-needle aspiration cytology 1 (2.4)
 Needle biopsy 34 (81.0)
 Excision biopsy 7 (16.7)
Resolved status (n, %)
 Not resolved 16 (38.1)
 Resolved 26 (61.9)
Mean period for the complete resolution of fat necrosis (months, ±SD) 45.9 ± 42.1
  1. aMethod of image modality for detection of fat necrosis could be duplicated