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Table 1 Clinicopathologic characteristics of patients who underwent breast reconstruction for breast cancer

From: Natural course of fat necrosis after breast reconstruction: a 10-year follow-up study

Variables Oncoplastic surgery (n = 362) Fat necrosis
n = 42 p value
Mean age (years, ± SD) 45.5 ± 7.9 46.1 ± 7.4 0.328
Mean body mass index (kg/m2, ± SD) 23.1 ± 3.0 23.2 ± 2.1 0.311
Underlying disease (n, %)    0.402
 Hypertension 43 (11.8) 3 (7.1)  
 Diabetes mellitus 39 (10.8) 4 (9.5)  
Mean clinical tumor size (cm, ± SD) 2.8 ± 1.6 2.1 ± 0.6 0.086
Mean pathologic tumor size (cm, ± SD) 2.3 ± 1.6 2.7 ± 1.9 0.619
Estrogen receptor, positive (n, %) 189 (52.2) 23 (54.8) 0.709
Progesterone receptor, positive (n, %) 165 (45.6) 18 (42.9) 0.461
c-erbB2 gene, positive (n, %) 69 (19.1) 7 (16.7) 0.523
Triple-negative breast cancer (n, %) 43 (11.9) 1 (2.4) 0.098
Type of breast surgery (n, %)    0.269
 Partial mastectomy 123 (34.0) 10 (23.8)  
 Nipple- or skin-sparing mastectomy 239 (66.0) 32 (76.2)  
Type of reconstructive surgery (n, %)    0.222
 Reduction mammoplasty 27 (7.5) 2 (4.8)  
 Thoraco-epigastric (TE) flap 4 (1.1)  
 Lateral thoracodorsal (LTD) flap 20 (5.5)  
 Thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap 15 (4.1) 2 (4.8)  
 Intercostal artery perforator (ICAP) flap 24 (6.6) 2 (4.8)  
 Latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap 73 (20.2) 3 (7.1)  
 Extended LD flap 102 (28.2) 4 (9.5)  
 Pedicled Transversus rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap 59 (16.3) 24 (57.2)  
 Free TRAM flap 29 (8.0) 4 (9.5)  
 Deep inferior epigastric perforators (DIEP) flap 1 (0.3)  
 Other flaps 6 (1.7) 1 (2.4)  
Mean weight of specimen (g, ±SD) 231.4 ± 159.0 189.1 ± 110.4 0.142
Mean operation time (minutes, ±SD) 458.3 ± 116.1 431.3 ± 106.5 0.610
Mean hospital stay (days, ±SD) 16.1 ± 4.5 16.4 ± 3.3 0.562
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n, %) 46 (12.7) 2 (4.8) 0.044
Adjuvant chemotherapy (n, %) 173 (47.8) 10 (23.8) 0.944
Adjuvant radiotherapy (n, %) 105 (29.0) 10 (23.8) 0.919
Mean follow-up period (months, ± SD) 97.3 ± 23.5 117.0 ± 26.9 0.184
Locoregional recurrence (n, %) 22 (6.1) 2 (4.8) 0.465
Distant metastasis (n, %) 15 (4.1) 4 (9.5) 0.799
Death (n, %) 9 (2.5) 2 (4.8) 0.625