Skip to main content

Table 3 Knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, and prevention and control stratified by health worker’s qualifications

From: Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of cervical cancer prevention among health workers in rural health centres of Northern Uganda

Variables Total, N = 285 (%) Nurses, N = 153 (53%) Midwives, N = 80 (28%) CO, N = 52 (18%) χ2 p-value
Adequate knowledge score ≥ mean (18 marks) 171 (60) 93 (61) 48 (60) 30 (58) 0.16 0.93
Risk factors for cervical cancer
 Infection with HPV 244 (85) 130 (85) 66 (82.5) 48 (92) 2.57 0.28
Smoking cigarette 120 (42) 54 (35) 36 (45) 30 (58) 8.37 0.02
 Infection with HIV 235 (82) 124 (81) 66 (82.5) 45 (87) 0.81 0.69
 Having multiple deliveries 189 (66) 110 (72) 50 (62.5) 29 (56) 5.24 0.07
 Early age at first delivery 177 (62) 92 (60) 55 (69) 30 (58) 2.18 0.35
 Early age at sexual debut 264 (92) 139 (91) 74 (93 51 (98) 2.97 0.22
 Long-term use of oral contraceptives pills 65 (23) 35 (23) 21 (26) 9 (17) 1.43 0.49
 Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis 142 (50) 83 (54) 35 (44) 24 (46) 2.66 0.26
 Having multiple sexual partners 283 (99) 153 (100) 78 (98) 52 (100) 5.16 0.08
Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer
 Foul-smelling vaginal discharge 237 (83) 124 (81) 69 (86) 44 (85) 1.11 0.58
 Bleeding after menopause 260 (91) 138 (90) 73 (91) 49 (94) 0.79 0.70
 Bleeding after sexual intercourse 266 (93) 143 (93) 73 (91) 50 (96) 1.22 0.54
 Abnormal vaginal bleeding between period 237 (83) 126 (82) 67 (84) 44 (85) 0.17 0.92
Unexplained weight loss 174 (61) 95 (62) 41 (51) 38 (73) 6.46 0.04
Prevention and control of cervical cancer
 Vaccination against HPV 282 (99) 152 (99) 78 (97.5) 52 (100) 2.40 0.30
 Correct age group for HPV vaccination according to Uganda Ministry of Health 250 (87) 138 (90) 68 (84) 44 (85) 2.33 0.31
 Using condom during sexual encounter 234 (82) 126 (82) 66 (82.5) 42 (81) 0.08 0.96
 Avoiding multiple sexual partners 280 (98) 149 (97) 79 (98) 52 (100) 1.37 0.74
 Delaying initiation of sex after 18 years 220 (77) 114 (75) 62 (77.5) 44 (85) 2.26 0.32
 Male circumcision 249 (87) 134 (88) 68 (85) 47 (90) 0.84 0.66
 Avoiding prolong use of oral contraceptive pills 81 (28) 41 (27) 28 (35) 12 (23) 2.63 0.27
 Avoiding smoking cigarette 133 (47) 64 (42) 40 (50) 29 (56) 3.53 0.17
Avoiding multiple deliveries/births 193 (68) 113 (74) 54 (67.5) 26 (50) 10.11 0.01
 Early screening 277 (97) 148 (97) 78 (97.5) 51 (98) 0.30 0.86
Correct age group for screening using VIA according to Uganda Ministry of Health 46 (16) 19 (12) 20 (25) 7 (13) 6.23 0.04
  1. χ2 = chi-square test, df = 2, Significant results are bolded, CO Clinical Officers
\