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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of each factor’s ability to predict CSS of lung typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid tumors

From: Prognostic nomogram for predicting long-term cancer-specific survival in patients with lung carcinoid tumors

Characteristic Typical Carcinoid Atypical Carcinoid
Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Age at diagnosis
  < 60 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
  ≥ 60 2.269 (1.497–3.438) 0.000 2.684(1.710–4.213) 0.000 1.922 (1.113–3.321) 0.019 1.975 (1.065–3.660) 0.031
Race
 White 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Others 1.519(0.862–2.678) 0.148    1.071 (0.509–2.252) 0.857   
Gender
 Female 1 (reference) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   
 Male 1.507(1.013–2.242) 0.043 1.563(1.022–2.390) 0.039 0.857 (0.504–1.457) 0.568    
Insurance
 Yes 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)    
 No 2.249 (1.431–3.534) 0.0004 1.622 (1.002–2.626) 0.049 1.346 (0.782–2.317) 0.284   
Marital status
 Married 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Un-married 0.986 (0.659–1.473) 0.943    1.404 (0.849–2.321) 0.186   
Primary site
 Main bronchus 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Upper lobe, lung 1.346 (0.569–3.185) 0.498    0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.996   
 Middle lobe, lung 0.681 (0.247–1.878) 0.458    0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.997   
 Lower lobe, lung 1.150 (0.486–2.722) 0.751    0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.996   
 Overlapping lesion of lung 0.508(0.061–4.230) 0.531    0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.996   
 Lung, NOS 1.738(0.489–6.175) 0.393    0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.996   
Grade
 Well 1 (reference) 1 (reference)   1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 Moderately/Pooly/Undifferentiated 3.537 (2.372–5.272) 0.000 2.127(1.392–3.250) 0.000 1.982 (1.006–3.905) 0.048 1.937(0.947–3.961) 0.070
Laterality
 Right 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Other 1.022(0.686–1.521) 0.915    1.384 (0.844–2.27) 0.198   
Historic Stage
 Localized 1 (reference) 1 (reference)   1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 Regional/Distant/Unstaged 4.016(2.699–5.977) 0.000 1.388 (0.697–2.764) 0.351 3.749 (2.094–6.712) 0.000 1.882 (0.724–4.893) 0.194
T stage
 T1 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 T2-T4 3.215 (2.102–4.919) 0.000 1.182 (0.680–2.053) 0.553 2.487(1.431–4.322) 0.001 1.242 (0.581–2.652) 0.576
N stage
 N0 1 (reference) 1 (reference)   1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 N1-N3 4.753 (3.186–7.092) 0.000 1.630 (0.901–2.948) 0.106 2.564 (1.55–4.241) 0.000 1.502 (0.719–3.137) 0.279
M stage
 M0 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 M1 7.635 (4.825–12.08) 0.000 1.443 (0.679–3.066) 0.341 7.527 (4.506–12.57) 0.000 4.302 (2.150–8.607) 0.000
Surgery
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Lobectomy 0.121 (0.077–0.188) 0.000 0.265 (0.140–0.502) 0.000 0.123 (0.067–0.226) 0.000 0.299(0.139–0.643) 0.002
 Local resection/destrubition 0.059 (0.014–0.247) 0.000 0.236 (0.053–1.050) 0.058 0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.996 0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.995
 Wedge resection 0.075 (0.030–0.192) 0.000 0.249 (0.090–0.690) 0.008 0.455(0.229–0.905) 0.025 1.674 (0.677–4.139) 0.264
 Pneumonectomy 0.122 (0.047–0.318) 0.000 0.121(0.037–0.392) 0.000 0.336(0.143–0.789) 0.012 0.424(0.142–1.263) 0.123
 Surgery, NOS 0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.995 0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.994 0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.999 0.000 (0.000-Inf) 0.999
Radiation
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference)   1 (reference) 1 (reference)  
 Yes 10.84 (6.89–17.05) 0.000 1.512 (0.724–3.156) 0.271 2.19 (1.241–3.866) 0.006 1.149 (0.573–2.303) 0.696
Chemotherapy
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 9.244 (5.587–15.3) 0.000 2.014 (1.118–3.631) 0.020 2.664 (1.604–4.425) 0.000 0.653 (0.332–1.286) 0.218
Radiation after surgery
 No 1 (reference) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)    
 Yes 5.533 (2.847–10.76) 0.000 1.422 (0.520–3.887) 0.492 1.169(0.556–2.454) 0.681   
Tumor size
  < 20 mm 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 20-40 mm 3.028(1.726–5.313) 0.000 2.310(1.276–4.181) 0.006 0.927 (0.490–1.756) 0.816 0.689(0.332–1.432) 0.184
  > 40 mm 8.470(4.643–15.452) 0.000 4.286 (2.043–8.993) 0.000 2.447(1.291–4.640) 0.006 1.796 (0.757–4.259) 0.031