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Table 3 Characteristics in the patients with or without neoadjuvant therapy

From: High tumor budding is a strong predictor of poor prognosis in the resected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma patients regardless of neoadjuvant therapy, showing survival similar to those without resection

 Patients with neoadjuvant therapy (n = 36)Patients without neoadjuvant therapy (n = 42)
FactorsLow TB (n = 25)High TB (n = 11)p valueLow TB (n = 29)High TB (n = 13)p value
Age (y.o.)70 (49–84)69 (39–77)0.52067 (40–87)69 (44–78)> 0.999
Gender (Male / Female)13 / 129 / 20.09118 / 117 / 60.616
Type of Neoadjuvant therapy
 Chemotherapy17 (68.0%)8 (72.7%)0.777
 Chemoradiotherapy8 (32.0%)3 (27.3%)    
PTPE4 (16.0%)2 (18.2%)0.8718 (27.6%)4 (30.8%)0.833
Initial tumor marker
 CEA (ng/mL)3.7 (1.3–14.6)3.9 (0.9–16.3)0.6852.9 (0.6–38.4)2.6 (0.7–28.0)0.936
 CA19–9 (U/mL)61.5 (1.0–7898)140.3 (1.0–1325)0.43587.5 (7.0–1115.7)65.1 (1.0–9278)0.872
Preoperative tumor marker
 CEA (ng/mL)2.6 (0.9–9.6)3.6 (1.1–24.4)0.1513.0 (0.7–32.2)2.6 (0.5–32.3)0.788
 CA19–9 (U/mL)33.2 (1.0–11,659)151.3 (1.0–1158)0.08667.3 (13.7–977.2)65.1 (1.0–9278)0.936
Type of liver resectiona     0.114
 No liver resection00 5 (17.2%)0 
 S1,5,6,7,89 (36.0%)3 (27.3%) 10 (34.5%)5 (38.5%) 
 S1,4,5,6,7,81 (4.0%)1 (9.1%) 2 (6.9%)3 (23.1%) 
 S1,2,3,49 (36.0%)6 (54.5%) 7 (24.1%)4 (30.8%) 
 S1,2,3,4,5,83 (12.0%)1 (9.1%) 01 (7.7%) 
 Others3 (12.0%)0 5 (17.2%)0 
HPD01 (9.1%)0.1263 (10.3%)00.229
Combined HA and/or PV resection12 (48.0%)10 (90.9%)0.01511 (37.9%)6 (46.2%)0.616
Operation time (min)625 (383–965)672 (422–972)0.261597 (403–1030)610 (435–746)0.914
Blood loss (ml)2212 (505–6916)2170 (1459–6012)0.6121964 (166–9907)1830 (587–3870)0.727
Histological type
G1, 2 / G325 / 0 (0%)6 / 5 (45.5%)< 0.00126 / 3 (10.3%)12 / 1 (7.7%)0.787
UICC 8th
pT: T0–3 / T419 / 6 (24.0%)4 / 7 (63.6%)0.02323 / 6 (20.7%)8 / 5 (38.5%)0.226
pN: N0 / N1–217 / 8 (32.0%)3 / 8 (72.7%)0.02316 /13 (44.8%)4 / 9 (69.2%)0.143
M: M0 / M1a25 / 0 (0%)8 / 3 (27.3%)0.00628 / 1 (3.4%)11 / 2 (15.4%)0.165
Residual tumor status
 R0 / R1 / R2 (M1 / margin positive)17 / 6 / 2 (0 / 2)6 / 1 / 4 (3 / 1)0.09221 / 5 / 3 (1 / 2)9 / 2 / 2 (2 / 0)0.895
Postoperative hospital stay (days)45 (13–161)37 (17–136)0.30849 (25–117)56 (18–325)0.374
Postoperative complication ≥ grade IIIb13 (52.0%)6 (54.5%)0.8889 (31.0%)4 (30.8%)0.986
Postoperative chemotherapy19 (76.0%)9 (81.8%)0.69918 (62.1%)10 (76.9%)0.345
  1. Patients in high TB groups had a significantly higher rate of combined vascular resection in patients received neoadjuvant therapy. In patients without preoperative therapy, there were no significant differences in preoperative and operative factors. Among 36 patients with neoadjuvant therapy, the rates of G3, T4, N1–2, and M1 in high TB group were significantly higher than those in low TB. As for postoperative factors, there were no differences between two groups in both patients with and without neoadjuvant therapy
  2. aM1 include 3 patients with intrahepatic metastasis. b Clavien-Dindo classification