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Table 2 Patient characteristics in the low and high TB groups

From: High tumor budding is a strong predictor of poor prognosis in the resected perihilar cholangiocarcinoma patients regardless of neoadjuvant therapy, showing survival similar to those without resection

VariablesLow TB (n = 54)High TB (n = 24)p value
Age (y.o.)69 (40–87)69 (39–780.630
Gender (Male/Female)31 / 2316 / 80.441
Neoadjuvant therapy25 (46.3%)11 (45.8%)0.970
PTPE12 (22.2%)6 (25.0%)0.788
Initial tumor marker
 CEA (ng/mL)3.6 (0.6–38.4)3.6 (0.7–28.0)0.862
 CA19–9 (U/mL)76.6 (1.0–7898)106.6 (1.0–9278)0.681
Preoperative tumor marker
 CEA (ng/mL)3.0 (0.7–32.2)3.2 (0.5–32.3)0.492
 CA19–9 (U/mL)56.9 (1.0–11,659)89.7 (1.0–9278)0.174
Type of liver resection  0.109
 No liver resection5 (9.3%)0 
 S1,5,6,7,816 (29.6%)10 (41.7%) 
 S1,4,5,6,7,819 (35.2%)8 (33.3%) 
 S1,2,3,43 (5.6%)2 (8.3%) 
 S1,2,3,4,5,83 (5.6%)4 (16.7%) 
 Others8 (14.8%)0 
HPD3 (5.6%)1 (4.2%)0.797
Combined HA and/or PV resection23 (42.6%)16 (66.7%)0.050
Operation time (min)603 (383–1030)622 (422–972)0.482
Blood loss (ml)2165 (166–9907)2054 (587–6012)0.987
Histological type
G1–2 / G351 / 3 (5.6%)18 / 6 (25%)0.013
TNM (UICC8th)
pT: T0–3 / T442 / 12 (22.2%)12 / 12 (50.0%)0.014
pN: N0 / N1–233 / 21 (38.9%)7 / 17 (70.8%)0.009
M: M0 / M1a53 / 1 (1.9%)19 / 5 (20.8%)0.004
Residual tumor status
 R0 / R1 / R2 (M1/ margin positive)38 / 11 / 5 (1 / 4)15 / 3 / 6 (5 / 1)0.162
Postoperative hospital stay (days)45.5 (13–61)47.5 (17–325)0.931
Postoperative complication ≥ grade IIIb22 (40.7%)10 (41.7%)0.939
Postoperative chemotherapy37 (68.5%)19 (79.2%)0.335
  1. There were no significant differences in preoperative patient characteristics and surgical information. In High TB group, patients had higher rate of tumor with grade G3 (25% vs 5.6%, p = 0.013), T4 (50.0% vs 22.2%, p = 0.014), Lymph node metastasis (70.8% vs 38.9%, p = 0.009), and distant metastasis (20.8% vs 1.9%, p = 0.004)
  2. HPD hepatopancreaticoduodenectomy, HA hepatic artery, PV portal vein
  3. aM1 include 3 patients with intrahepatic metastasis. bClavien-Dindo classification
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