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Table 2 Evaluation of bias and heterogeneity in 36 associations of coffee intake with cancer incidence

From: Coffee drinking and cancer risk: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies

Author, yearCancer typeUnit of comparisonI2 (95%CI)P for Q*Egger’s P valueObservedaExpectedaP for TESb
Thomopoulos, 2015 [20]Acute lymphocytic leukemiaH/L8 (0, 73)0.3680.30921.24
Thomopoulos, 2015 [20]Acute myelogenous leukemiaH/L63 (2, 86)0.0290.911.160.444
Godos, 2017 [4]Biliary tract cancerH/L0 (0, 79)0.8490.07300.42
Wu, 2015 [24]Bladder cancerH/L42 (11, 63)0.0090.014910.42
Jiang, 2013 [9]Breast cancerH/L0 (0, 39)0.4850.37445.64
Gan, 2017 [3]Colon cancerH/L30 (0, 62)0.1240.69933.14
Li, 2013 [13]Colorectal cancerH/L57 (38, 70)< 0.0010.4191110.27
Lukic, 2018 [8]Endometrial cancerH/L29 (0, 60)0.1320.32683.170.786
Zheng, 2013 [28]Esophageal cancerH/L42 (0, 69)0.0490.03834.880.008
Botelho, 2006 [1]Gastric cancerH/L34 (0, 61)0.0550.69535.13
Malerba, 2013 [15]GliomaH/L0 (0, 75)0.4790.13500.85
Wijarnpreecha, 2017 [23]Kidney cancerH/L35 (0, 62)0.0520.88228.51
Ouyang, 2014 [16]Laryngeal cancerH/L76 (53, 88)< 0.0010.32922.83
Thomopoulos, 2015 [20]LeukemiaH/L55 (0, 82)0.0480.12822.34
Sang, 2013 [17]Liver cancerH/L10 (0, 47)0.3370.0574.240.118
Galarraga, 2016 [2]Lung cancerH/L88 (84, 92)< 0.0010.10499.29
Han, 2016 [6]LymphomaH/L68 (30, 86)0.0040.77522.32
Yew, 2016 [27]MelanomaH/L46 (0, 73)0.0480.82452.70.107
Vaseghi, 2016 [22]NonmelanomaH/L29 (0, 71)0.220.51211.28
Li, 2016 [11]Oral cancerH/L53 (16, 74)0.0080.68574.890.245
Miranda, 2017 [15]Oral/Pharyngeal cancerH/L50 (13, 72)0.0090.28764.860.537
Steevens, 2007 [18]Ovarian cancerH/L51 (11, 73)0.0120.04734.57
Turati, 2012 [21]Pancreatic cancerH/L50 (32, 64)< 0.0010.8761214.86
Xia, 2017 [26]Prostate cancerH/L52 (32, 71)0.0010.22946.63
Gan, 2017 [3]Rectal cancerH/L13 (0, 51)0.3080.82213.13
Han, 2017 [5]Thyroid cancerH/L0 (0, 71)0.5910.74601
Li, 2013 [12]Breast cancerPer 1 cup0 (0, 45)0.7960.61903.30
Gan, 2017 [3]Colon cancerPer 1 cup23 (0, 58)0.2030.81833.000.999
Gan, 2017 [3]Colorectal cancerPer 1 cup34 (0, 63)0.0810.43434.80
Huang, 2013 [7]Endometrial cancerPer 1 cup35 (0, 73)0.1610.27431.300.098
Xie, 2014 [26]Gastric cancerPer 1 cup48 (0, 76)0.0510.19812.66
Malerba, 2013 [14]GliomaPer 1 cup44 (0, 81)0.150.96100.83
Kennedy, 2017 [10]Liver cancerPer 1 cup59 (30, 76)0.0010.00005093137.220.005
Tang, 2010 [19]Lung cancerPer 1 cup41 (0, 73)0.0920.49932.210.543
Turati, 2012 [21]Pancreatic cancerPer 1 cup65 (47, 76)< 0.0010.32648.67
Gan, 2017 [3]Rectal cancerPer 1 cup12 (0, 50)0.3230.38303.15
  1. Abbreviation: H/L The highest intake vs. lowest intake of coffee
  2. Reference was provided in Additional file 1: Table S3
  3. * P value from Cochran’s Q test for heterogeneity.
  4. a Observed and expected number of significant studies using effect of largest study (smallest standard error) of each meta-analysis as plausible effect size
  5. b P value from test for excess significance bias. All statistical tests are two sided