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Table 1 Characteristics of Patients, Tumors and Ablation Parameters

From: 3D visualization ablation planning system assisted microwave ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (Diameter >3): a precise clinical application

Characteristic3D planning group (n = 66)2D planning group (n = 64)P Value
Age (y)  0.296
 Mean ± SD60.6 ± 11.758.6 ± 10.0 
 Range36–8134–76 
Sex  0.898
 Male52 (78.8)48 (75) 
 Female14 (21.2)16 (25) 
Comorbid disease  0.835
 No28 (42.4)26 (40.6) 
 Yes38 (57.6)38 (59.4) 
Pathological differentiation  0.597
 Well/moderately32 (48.5)34 (53.1) 
 Poorly34 (51.5)30 (46.9) 
Etiology  0.381
 No5 (7.6)2 (3.1) 
 HBV59 (89.4)58 (90.7) 
 HCV2 (3.0)4 (6.2) 
Cirrhosis  0.124
 Yes55 (83.3)59 (92.2) 
 No11 (16.7)5 (7.8) 
Maximal tumor diameter (cm)
 Mean ± SD5.0 ± 1.55.0 ± 1.60.721
 Range3.0–8.73.0–10.0 
 3.1–4.947 (71.2)37 (59.1)0.147
 5.0–6.911 (16.7)20 (30.3) 
 7.0–10.08 (12.1)7 (10.6) 
Tumor no.  0.987
 136 (54.5)35 (54.7) 
 2–330 (45.5)29 (45.3) 
Tumor volume (ml)  0.295
 Mean ± SD65.6 ± 21.262.8 ± 28.3 
 Range6.32–171.127.73–182.6 
 <62.551 (75.8)48 (71.9) 
 ≥ 62.515 (24.2)16 (28.1) 
Approximated sphericity  0.491
 Yes12 (18.2)10 (15.7) 
 No54 (81.8)54 (84.3) 
Ablation volume (ml)  0.772
 Mean ± SD145.7 ± 89.1157.2 ± 95.5 
 Range26.3–296.624.5–312.8 
Residual liver ratio (%)  0.527
 Median89.5 ± 21.287.3 ± 25.7 
 Range63.9–98.072.1–96.8 
Location  0.030*
 Left liver lobe7 (10.6)18 (28.3) 
 Right liver lobe56 (84.8)45 (68.2) 
 Left + Right liver lobe3 (4.6)1 (1.5) 
Adjacent to organ  0.454
 No33 (50)25 (39.1) 
 Major vessels7 (10.6)10 (15.6) 
 Diaphragm12 (18.2)17 (25.8) 
 Gastrointestinal tract1(4 21.2)12(18.2) 
CTP grade  0.208
 A61 (92.4)63 (98.4) 
 B5 (7.6)1 (1.6) 
α-fetoprotein level (ng/ml)  0.382
 > 40030 (45.5)34 (53.1) 
 ≤ 40036 (54.5)30 (46.9) 
Preoperative image type  0.429
 CT24 (36.4)30 (46.9) 
 MRI42 (63.6)34 (53.1) 
Chemoradiation  0.812
 Yes59 (89.4)58 (90.6) 
 No7 (10.6)6 (9.4) 
Preoperative TACE  0.117
 Yes11 (16.7)18 (28.1) 
 No55 (83.3)46 (71.9) 
Complications  0.712
 Yes5 (7.6)6 (9.4) 
 No61 (92.4)58 (90.6) 
Follow-up (months)  0.287
 Median17.724.2 
 Range4.3–43.72.9–42.2 
Postoperative Metastasis  0.447
 Yes9 (13.6)6 (9.4) 
 No57 (86.4)58 (90.6) 
Antenna number  0.391
 2112 (84.8)98 (81.3) 
 > 29 (15.2)4 (18.7) 
Insertion number  0.034*
 Mean ± SD5.4 ± 1.24.5 ± 0.9 
 Range2–122–11 
Ablation time (s)  0.048*
 Mean ± SD1249.2 ± 654.21082.4 ± 584.7 
 Range380–3360280–2290 
Ablation power (W)   
 Mean ± SD60 ± 560 ± 70.725
 Range40–6540–65 
Ablation energy (J)  0.038*
 Mean ± SD57,000 ± 11,89242,600 ± 10,271 
 Range12,000–220,80012,000–20,600 
Ablation frequency (Hz)  0.482
 9156 (6.1)3 (4.7) 
 2450115 (93.9)99 (95.3) 
Sessions  0.033*
 1115 (95.0)87 (85.3) 
 > 16 (5.0)15 (14.7) 
  1. Note.-Except where indicated, data are numbers of patients. Data in parentheses are percentages and were calculated by using the total number of patients in each group as the denominator. SD Standard deviation, TACE Transarterial chemoembolization, CT Computed tomography, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging