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Table 3 Clinical factors associated with HPD by univariate and multivariate analyses (n = 155)a

From: The implications of clinical risk factors, CAR index, and compositional changes of immune cells on hyperprogressive disease in non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving immunotherapy

  Univariate Multivariate
HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value
Age, ≥65 vs < 65 0.49 (0.20–1.18) 0.1115   
Gender, Female vs. Male 0.35 (0.10–1.24) 0.1039   
ECOG, 2 ~ 3 vs. 0 ~ 1 10.67 (0.93–122.33) 0.0572 6.39 (0.48–8575) 0.1613
Smoking (pack.year), ≥20 vs. < 20 2.75 (0.97–7.75) 0.0563 5.62 (1.59–19.78) 0.0072
PD-L1 expression > 1 vs ≤1 0.28 (0.12–0.68) 0.0049 0.35 (0.13–0.93) 0.0355
Oncogenic driver mutation, any one vs. no 3.14 (1.17–8.39) 0.0227 3.21 (0.97–10.60) 0.0552
EGFR mutation, positive vs. negative 2.32 (0.74–7.27) 0.1483   
No. of metastatic site, ≥3 vs. < 3 3.74 (1.43–9.79) 0.0073 3.53 (1.13–10.99) 0.0297
No. of treatment line before IO, ≥4 vs. < 4 2.30 (0.73–7.21) 0.1526   
  1. a Non evaluable group and Non-HPD PD group were excluded
  2. HPD hyperprogressive disease, HR hazard ratio, ECOG European Cooperative Oncology Group, PD-L1 programmed death-ligand 1, EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor, IO immune oncology therapy