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Table 4 Factors predicting variceal bleeding episodes in the entire set of patients with PVTT (n = 206)

From: Variceal bleeding is aggravated by portal venous invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma: a matched nested case-control study

Variable Without variceal bleeding With variceal bleeding Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
(n = 196) (n = 10) HR 95% CI P-value HR 95% CI P-value
Age (years) 55.6 ± 9.5 52.9 ± 7.9 0.979 0.916–1.045 0.523    
Male 173 (88.3) 8 (80.0) 2.023 0.428–9.566 0.374    
Hypertension 42 (21.4) 2 (20.0) 0.997 0.210–4.723 0.997    
HBV infection 173 (88.3) 10 (100.0)       
Child-Pugh class
 A (reference) 174 (88.8) 10 (100.0)       
 B 22 (11.2) 0 (0.0)       
NSBBs 36 (18.4) 2 (20.0) 1.283 0.270–6.090 0.754    
PT (INR) 1.1 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.1 1.956 1.191–3.210 0.008    
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.2 0.774 0.112–5.355 0.795    
Platelet count (×103/uL) 140.1 ± 64.2 127.2 ± 51.4 0.996 0.985–1.007 0.528    
AST (IU/L) 57.5 ± 48.8 48.3 ± 26.4 0.995 0.976–1.013 0.576    
ALT (IU/L) 43.9 ± 40.8 40.2 ± 29.1 0.997 0.975–1.018 0.758    
Ascites 18 (9.2) 0 (0.0)       
Number of tumors
 Single (reference) 109 (55.6) 6 (60.0) 1.0    
 Multiple 87 (44.4) 4 (40.0) 1.151 0.316–4.194 0.831    
 Tumor size (cm) 7.1 ± 3.5 8.4 ± 4.9 1.237 0.258–5.929 0.790    
 Serum AFP (ng/ml) 13,429.2 ± 45,167.2 8230.8 ± 18,268.5 1.154 0.976–1.364 0.093    
 Extrahepatic metastasis 41 (20.9) 2 (20.0) 0.998 0.976–1.021 0.875    
Degree of PVTT
 Vp2 (reference) 74 (37.7) 2 (20.0) 1.0    
 Vp3 45 (23.0) 3 (30.0) 2.464 0.406–14.924 0.327    
 Vp4 77 (39.3) 5 (50.0) 2.965 0.567–15.497 0.198    
Primary anti-HCC treatment
 TACE 133 (67.9) 7 (70.0) 1.174 0.302–4.574 0.817    
 Radiotherapy 52 (26.5) 2 (20.0) 0.753 0.160–3.554 0.720    
 Sorafenib 9 (4.6) 3 (30.0) 11.615 2.809–48.030 0.001 5.676 1.273–25.300 0.023
High-risk varices 49 (25.0) 9 (90.0) 31.323 3.928–249.782 0.001 26.432 3.230–216.289 0.002
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation, or frequency (percentage)
  2. PVTT portal vein tumor thrombosis, HR hazards ratio, CI confidence interval, HBV hepatitis B virus, NSBB nonselective beta-blocker, PT prothrombin time, INR international normalized ratio, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, and TACE transarterial chemoembolization