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Table 1 Host and tumor characteristics of the pooled cohort

From: Variceal bleeding is aggravated by portal venous invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma: a matched nested case-control study

Variable Pooled cohort
All Without PVTT With PVTT Standardized difference P-value
(n = 1709) (n = 1503) (n = 206)
Age (years) 57.0 ± 9.3 57.2 ± 9.2 55.5 ± 9.5 0.182 0.013
Male 1392 (81.5) 1211 (80.6) 181 (87.9) 0.201 0.012
Hypertension 451 (26.4) 407 (27.1) 44 (21.4) 0.134 0.081
Etiology of liver disease     0.189 0.072
 HBV infection 1437 (84.1) 1254 (83.4) 183 (88.8)   
 HCV infection 131 (7.7) 123 (8.2) 8 (3.9)   
 Others 141 (8.2) 126 (8.4) 15 (7.3)   
Child-Pugh class
 A 1564 (91.5) 1380 (91.8) 184 (89.3) 0.085 0.228
 B 145 (8.5) 123 (8.2) 22 (10.7)   
 PT (INR) 1.10 ± 0.12 1.09 ± 0.12 1.10 ± 0.10 0.033 0.115
 Albumin (g/dl) 3.8 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.5 3.7 ± 0.5 0.192 0.010
 Bilirubin (mg/dl) 1.0 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 1.6   0.036
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 ± 0.6 0.9 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 1.0 0.072 0.678
 Platelet (× 103/uL) 133.1 ± 57.2 132.3 ± 56.2 139.4 ± 63.6 0.120 0.265
 AST (IU/L) 51.4 ± 39.6 50.6 ± 38.3 57.0 ± 47.9 0.147 0.204
 ALT (IU/L) 42.5 ± 34.6 42.3 ± 33.7 43.7 ± 40.2 0.037 0.755
 Ascites 49 (2.9) 31 (2.1) 18 (8.7) 0.299 < 0.001
 MELD score 8.2 ± 2.3 8.2 ± 2.3 8.4 ± 2.5 0.086 0.251
 Liver cirrhosis 1.709 (100) 1.503 (100) 206 (100) 0.000 0.999
Number of tumors     0.221 0.002
 Single 1115 (65.3) 1000 (66.5) 115 (55.8)   
 Multiple 594 (34.7) 503 (33.5) 91 (44.2)   
Infiltrative-type tumor 99 (5.8) 23 (1.5) 76 (36.9) 1.004 < 0.001
Tumor size (cm) 3.9 ± 2.8 3.5 ± 2.4 7.2 ± 3.5 1.218 < 0.001
Serum AFP (ng/mL) 2630.6 ± 17,308.0 1185.2 ± 7501.9 13,176.8 ± 44,232.0 0.378 < 0.001
Extrahepatic metastasis 85 (5.0) 42 (2.8) 43 (20.9) 0.583 < 0.001
Primary anti-HCC treatment
 TACE 717 (42.0) 577 (38.4) 140 (68.0) 0.620 < 0.001
 Radiotherapy* 86 (5.0) 32 (2.1) 54 (26.2) 0.736 < 0.001
 Sorafenib¥ 41 (2.4) 29 (1.9) 12 (5.8) 0.203 0.002
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, or frequency (percentage)
  2. PVTT portal vein tumor thrombosis, HBV hepatitis B infection, HCV hepatitis C virus, PT prothrombin time, INR international normalized ratio, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, MELD model for end-stage liver disease, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, and TACE transarterial chemoembolization
  3. *Of the 86 patients receiving radiotherapy, 77 were primarily treated with a TACE-combined regimen: 50 in the PVTT group and 27 in the non-PVTT group
  4. ¥Of the 29 patients receiving sorafenib in the non-PVTT group, 19 were primarily treated with a TACE-combined regimen; while 12 patients with PVTT group only treated with sorafenib regimen