Skip to main content

Table 3 Comprehensive multivariable-adjusted Hazard Ratios for all-cause mortality, bladder cancer-specific mortality, competing-cause mortality, second-cancer mortality, and Noncancer mortality among patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic bladder cancer from 2014 to 2015

From: Short-term mortality risks among patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer

  All-cause mortality Bladder cancer-specific mortality Competing-cause mortality Second cancer mortality Noncancer mortality
Characteristic AHR (95% CI) P AHR (95% CI) P AHR (95% CI) P AHR (95% CI) P AHR (95% CI) P
Age
  < 50 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 50–64 1.72 (1.32–2.24) <.001 1.47 (1.13–1.93) <.005 2.83 (1.50–5.34) <.001 10.8 (7.6–14.8) <.001 2.30 (1.21–4.37) 0.011
 65+ 3.66 (2.83–4.73) <.001 2.37 (1.82–3.08) <.001 8.76 (4.70–16.3) <.001 33.3 (29.0–38.2) <.001 7.49 (4.03–13.9) <.001
Gender
 Male 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 Female 1.03 (0.96–1.11) 0.412 1.26 (1.15–1.38) <.001 0.71 (0.64–0.81) <.001 0.68 (0.49–0.94) 0.021 0.72 (0.63–0.82) <.001
Race
 White 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 Black 1.16 (1.03–1.31) 0.013 1.18 (1.02–1.38) 0.030 0.98 (0.79–1.21) 0.850 0.82 (0.45–1.52) 0.53 0.99 (0.79–1.25) 0.970
 Asian or Pacific islander 0.95 (0.83–1.09) 0.485 0.88 (0.74–1.06) 0.180 1.05 (0.84–1.30) 0.680 1.12 (0.64–1.96) 0.69 1.04 (0.82–1.32) 0.740
 American Indian 1.69 (1.16–2.46) 0.006 1.70 (1.09–2.63) 0.020 1.30 (0.62–2.70) 0.490 2.81 (0.72–10.9) 0.14 1.05 (0.45–2.48) 0.910
Insurance status
 Uninsured 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 Any Medicaid 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.776 0.77 (0.57–1.04) 0.092 1.85 (0.94–3.64) 0.740 1.47 (0.34–6.25) 0.600 2.05 (0.96–4.40) 0.065
 Insured 0.72 (0.55–0.94) 0.017 0.65 (0.49–0.86) 0.003 1.30 (0.67–2.52) 0.440 1.49 (0.38–5.93) 0.570 1.40 (0.66–2.97) 0.370
 Unknown 0.72 (0.53–0.98) 0.039 1.12 (0.64–1.26) 0.530 0.82 (0.40–1.67) 0.580 0.85 (0.18–3.98) 0.840 0.90 (0.40–2.00) 0.790
Marital status
 Single 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 Married 0.67 (0.60–0.73) <.001 0.66 (0.58–0.74) <.001 0.74 (0.63–0.87) <.001 1.03 (0.66–1.60) 0.910 0.71 (0.60–0.85) <.001
 Other status 1.10 (0.99–1.21) 0.070 0.99 (0.87–1.12) 0.820 1.27 (1.07–1.50) 0.006 1.59 (0.99–2.53) 0.054 1.26 (1.06–1.51) 0.010
 Unknown a 0.69 (0.59–0.80) <.001 0.65 (0.53–0.80) <.001 0.83 (0.66–1.05) 0.120 0.91 (0.47–1.74) 0.770 0.84 (0.65–1.07) 0.160
T stage
 Tis, Ta or T1 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 T2 3.70 (3.40–4.02) <.001 5.82 (5.17–6.55) <.001 1.40 (1.20–1.63) <.001 0.68 (0.43–1.07) 0.096 1.54 (1.31–1.82) <.001
 T3 3.94 (3.49–4.44) <.001 6.85 (5.89–7.97) <.001 1.05 (0.80–1.39) 0.730 1.06 (0.94–2.13) 0.860 1.05 (0.77–1.41) 0.780
 T4 6.16 (5.42–7.01) <.001 11.6 (9.87–13.7) <.001 0.78 (0.54–1.13) 0.190 0.41 (0.14–1.19) 0.100 0.86 (0.58–1.27) 0.440
 Unknown 2.02 (1.64–2.48) <.001 3.25 (2.43–4.35) <.001 1.15 (0.81–1.63) 0.430 0.74 (0.36–1.49) 0.390 1.23 (0.84–1.82) 0.290
N stage
 N0 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 N1 1.46 (1.24–1.73) <.001 1.60 (1.33–1.92) <.001 0.79 (0.48–1.30) 0.350 0.76 (0.19–3.09) 0.710 0.79 (0.46–1.34) 0.370
 N2 or N3 1.93 (1.69–2.22) <.001 2.00 (1.72–2.33) <.001 1.11 (0.76–1.62) 0.600 0.83 (0.27–2.54) 0.740 1.14 (0.76–1.70) 0.530
 Unknown 1.08 (0.90–1.31) 0.406 1.16 (0.89–1.52) 0.280 1.17 (0.84–1.63) 0.340 2.16 (1.18–3.95) 0.013 1.05 (0.72–1.53) 0.800
Histological grade
 Grade I 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 Grade II 0.96 (0.80–1.14) 0.610 1.45 (1.02–2.07) 0.380 0.80 (0.65–0.99) 0.037 0.76 (0.45–1.28) 0.300 0.81 (0.65–1.02) 0.070
 Grade III 2.05 (1.72–2.45) <.001 4.68 (3.33–6.57) <.001 1.07 (0.85–1.35) 0.570 1.42 (0.80–2.52) 0.230 1.04 (0.80–1.34) 0.780
 Grade IV 1.83 (1.55–2.15) <.001 3.98 (2.86–5.53) <.001 1.09 (0.89–1.32) 0.400 1.00 (0.62–1.63) 0.990 1.12 (0.90–1.38) 0.320
 Unknown 1.50 (1.26–1.78) <.001 2.82 (2.01–3.96) <.001 1.09 (0.89–1.34) 0.390 1.39 (0.84–2.30) 0.200 1.06 (0.85–1.33) 0.620
Surgery
 No surgery 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 Surgery 0.50 (0.44–0.57) <.001 0.54 (0.45–0.65) <.001 0.57 (0.47–0.70) <.001 0.51 (0.29–0.88) 0.015 0.58 (0.47–0.72) <.001
Chemotherapy
 No chemotherapy 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 Chemotherapy 0.61 (0.57–0.66) <.001 0.65 (0.59–0.71) <.001 0.64 (0.56–0.72) <.001 0.70 (0.50–0.96) 0.028 0.63 (0.55–0.72) <.001
Radiotherapy
 No radiation 1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)   1.0 (Ref)  
 Radiation 1.31 (1.18–1.45) <.001 1.30 (1.15–1.47) <.001 1.38 (1.11–1.71) 0.003 1.91 (1.05–3.47) 0.034 1.34 (1.07–1.69) <.001
  1. Abbreviations: AHR adjusted hazard ratio, Ref reference category
  2. aother status including divorced, widowed, separated or domestic partner
\