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Table 2 Standardized mortality ratios for each cause of death after bladder cancer diagnosis

From: Short-term mortality risks among patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer

  Timing of deaths after diagnosis
< 1 Year 1–3 Years Total
Cause of death No. Observeda SMR (95% CI) No. Observeda SMR (95% CI) No. Observeda SMR (95% CI)
All causes of death 2289 3.13 (3.00–3.26)b 1890 2.41 (2.30–2.52)b 4179 2.76 (2.67–2.84)b
Bladder cancer-specific death 1278 188.61 (178.41–199.24)b 914 124.91 (116.94–133.28)b 2192 155.54 (149.09–162.19)b
Second-cancer death 229 1.50 (1.32–1.71)b 270 1.67 (1.48–1.88)b 499 1.59 (1.45–1.74)b
Non-cancer causes of death
 Septicemia 18 1.69 (1.00–2.67)b 20 1.74 (1.06–2.69)b 38 1.72 (1.21–2.36)b
 Other infectious diseases 20 3.69 (2.25–5.69)b 11 1.94 (0.97–3.47) 31 2.79 (1.90–3.97)b
 Diabetes mellitus 30 1.45 (0.98–2.07) 22 1 (0.62–1.51) 52 1.22 (0.91–1.60)
 Alzheimer disease 25 0.76 (0.49–1.12) 27 0.73 (0.48–1.06) 52 0.74 (0.56–0.98)b
 Diseases of the heart 262 1.35 (1.19–1.52)b 255 1.23 (1.08–1.39)b 517 1.29 (1.18–1.4)b
 Hypertension without heart disease 16 1.84 (1.05–2.99)b 8 0.85 (0.37–1.68) 24 1.33 (0.85–1.97)
 Cerebrovascular diseases 47 1.18 (0.87–1.57) 37 0.86 (0.61–1.19) 84 1.02 (0.81–1.26)
 Pneumonia and influenza 29 1.67 (1.12–2.40)b 16 0.88 (0.5–1.42) 45 1.26 (0.92–1.69)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 71 1.52 (1.18–1.91)b 77 1.53 (1.21–1.92)b 148 1.52 (1.29–1.79)b
 Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis 11 1.67 (0.83–2.99) 9 1.27 (0.58–2.4) 20 1.46 (0.89–2.26)
 Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis 29 1.90 (1.27–2.72)b 16 0.98 (0.56–1.6) 45 1.43 (1.04–1.91)b
 Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions 6 0.77 (0.28–1.67) 7 0.90 (0.36–1.86) 13 0.84 (0.44–1.43)
 Accidents and adverse effects 19 0.86 (0.52–1.35) 19 0.80 (0.48–1.24) 38 0.83 (0.59–1.14)
 Suicide and self-inflicted injury 7 1.41 (0.57–2.90) 11 2.07 (1.04–3.71)b 18 1.75 (1.04–2.77)b
 Other cause of death 167 1.34 (1.14–1.56)b 147 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 314 1.21 (1.08–1.35)b
  1. Abbreviation: SMR standardized mortality ratio
  2. aValues indicate the number of patients with cancer who died from each cause of death
  3. bP < 0.05
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