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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses of all patients for intravesical recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival

From: Preoperative positive voided urine cytology predicts poor clinical outcomes in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma undergoing nephroureterectomy

Factors Intravesical RFS RFS CSS OS
Univariable Multivariablea Univariable Multivariableb Univariable Multivariablec Univariable Multivariablec
P HR(95%CI) P P HR(95%CI) P P HR(95%CI) P P HR(95%CI) P
Urine cytology (Yes VS. No) 0.073 2.21 (1.06–4.64) 0.035 0.009 1.80 (1.08–2.99) 0.023 0.019 1.87 (1.10–3.18) 0.020 0.057 1.32 (0.80–2.18) 0.28
Tumor stage (≥T3 VS. ≤T2) 0.5   0.28 <0.001 3.10 (1.74–5.52) <0.001 <0.001 4.42 (2.38–8.23) <0.001 <0.001 3.23 (1.80–5.78) <0.001
Age (≥65 VS. <65) 0.3   0.6 0.001 2.45 (1.32–4.53) 0.004 0.002 2.05 (1.08–3.90) 0.029 0.002 2.09 (1.11–3.93) 0.022
Bladder irrigation (Yes VS. No) 0.25   0.15 0.20   0.25 0.050 0.51 (0.29–0.90) 0.021 0.024 0.53 (0.31–0.89) 0.017
LVI (Yes VS. No) 0.19   0.051 <0.001 2.66 (1.32–5.34) 0.006 <0.001   0.076 0.003 2.22 (1.14–4.33) 0.019
Hydronephrosis (Yes VS. No) 0.13   0.8 0.061 1.89 (1.04–3.43) 0.036 0.094 2.45 (1.30–4.60) 0.005 0.23   0.17
DM (Yes VS. No) 0.7   0.10 0.46 (0.21–0.99) 0.047 0.6   0.6  
Location (ureter VS. pelvis) 0.028 3.00 (1.32–6.85) 0.009 0.21   0.4 0.23   0.4 0.8   0.3
Hypertension (Yes VS. No) 0.26   0.049   0.10 0.044   0.13 0.022 1.71 (1.01–2.86) 0.044
Gender (Male VS. Female) 0.7   0.8   0.6   0.5 0.21   0.091
Smoking (Yes VS. No) 0.6   0.8 0.5   0.4 0.6   0.6 0.9   0.8
BMI (≥30 VS. <30) 0.5   0.4 0.18   0.4 0.3   0.6 0.23   0.4
Multifocality (Yes VS. No) 0.4   0.6 0.034   0.13 0.12   0.29 0.22   0.7
Size (>2 CM VS. ≤2 CM) 0.7   0.3 0.9   0.4 1   0.8 1   0.9
Tumor grade (high VS. low) 0.4   0.8 0.014   0.11 0.018   0.063 0.027   0.23
Hematuria (Yes VS. No) 0.034   0.054 0.7   0.6   0.4  
Alcohol history (Yes VS. No) 0.050   0.073 0.9   1   0.5  
Preoperative URS 0.20   0.6    
  1. Note: a Adjusted for tumor stage, age, bladder irrigation, LVI, hydronephrosis, location, smoking, BMI, multifocality, size, tumor grade, hematuria, alcohol history, and URS;
  2. b Adjusted for tumor stage, age, bladder irrigation, LVI, hydronephrosis, DM, location, hypertension, smoking, BMI, multifocality, size, and tumor grade;
  3. c Adjusted for tumor stage, age, bladder irrigation, LVI, hydronephrosis, location, hypertension, gender, smoking, BMI, multifocality, size, and tumor grade;
  4. Abbreviations: RFS Recurrence-free survival, CSS Cancer-specific survival; OS Overall survival, DM Diabetes mellitus; BMI Body mass index; LVI Lymphovascular invasion; URS Ureteroscopy, HR Hazard ratio
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